Tylor Papers

Papers of Sir Edward Burnett TYLOR (1832-1917), anthropologist

  • Twenty-one boxes of material
  • The material includes correspondence, notebooks, loose notes, draft manuscripts, drawings and offprints of articles
  • The papers have been listed

Related Resources

Collections of papers: British Library; Natural History Museum; University College London
Collections of objects, photographs, etc.: Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford
National Register of Archives: Tylor, Sir Edward Burnett (1832-1917) Knight, Anthropologist Link to record (external site)

Full Listing

Box 1

1-16    Sixteen notebooks (notebooks I-XVI) containing notes made from various books and articles

Box 2

1-16    Sixteen notebooks (notebooks XVII-XXXII) containing notes made from various books and articles

Box 3

1-10    Ten notebooks (notebooks XXXIII – XLII) containing notes made from various books and articles
11    Notebook containing notes from various books and articles
12    Notes on Spiritualism includes four photographs and a compliments slip
13    Sketch book, includes notes and some drawings
14    Sketch book, includes notes and some drawings
15    Small notebook with fastener - notes and drawings
16    Small notebook with fastener - notes and drawings
17    Small notebook with fastener - notes and drawings, including some drawings of hieroglyphs
18    Small thin notebook
19    Small thin notebook
20    Small marbled endpaper notebook
21    Small notebook
22    Small marbled endpaper and cover notebook
23    Small pad with notes

Box 4 – Pamphlets and offprints

1    On the Occurrence of Ground Stone Implements of Australian Type in Tasmania. By Edward B. Tylor, F.R.S. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute Vol. XXIV, May 1895, pp. 336-340 with Plate XVII
2    On American Lot-games, as Evidence of Asiatic Intercourse, before the time of Columbus. By E. B. Tylor. Seperat-Abdruck aus: Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographic, Suppl. zu Bd. IX, 1896, pp. 55-67 with Plate V (colour).
3    Typewritten list of contents of box 4
4    On Traces of the Early Mental Condition of Man. By Edward Burnet Tylor, Esq. Offprint from Proceedings of the Royal Institution, March 15, 1867, pp. 3-11, (2 copies).
5    On the Survival of Savage Thought in Modern Civilisation. By E. B. Tylor Esq. Offprint from Proceedings of the Royal Institution, April 23, 1869, pp. 1-13, (3 copies).
6    An Address delivered to the Anthropological Institute by E. B. Tylor, D.C.L. F.R.S. at the Annual General Meeting on January 27th 1880, pp. 1-15 (3copies).
7    On the Origin of the Plough and Wheel-carriage. By E. B. Tylor Esq., F.R.S., President. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, August 1880, pp. 1-11 (2 copies).
8    Notes on the Asiatic Relations of Polynesian Culture. By Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S., V.P.A.I. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute May 1882, pp. 1-5.
9    Old Scandinavian Civilisation among the Modern Esquimaux. By E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute Vol. XIII, February 1884, pp. 1-10 with Plates VI and VII.
10    Address to the Section of Anthropology of the British Association (Montreal 1884). By Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. pp.1-12 (3 copies).
11    American Aspects of Anthropology. By Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. The Popular Science Monthly, Vol. XXVI, N0. II, December 1884, pp. 152-266.
12    Notes on Powhatan's Mantle, preserved in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. By Dr. Edward B. Tylor. Separat-Abdruck aus: Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographic Bd. I. 1888, pp. 215-217 with Plate XX.
13    A Method of Investigating the Development of Institutions; Applied to Laws of Marriage and Descent. By Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, February 1889, pp. 245-269.
14    Notes on the Modern Survival of Ancient Amulets against the Evil Eye. By E. B. Tylor, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., V. P.Anth. Inst. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute August 1889, p. 55.
15    The Philosophy of Religion among the Lower Races of Mankind, by Edward B. Tylor. Read by Professor Huxley at the Ethnological Society of London, Ordinary Meeting, April 26th 1870. The Journal of the Ethnological Society of London, Vol. II, pp. 369-382 (4 copies).
16    Remarks on Japanese Mythodology. By Edward B. Tylor. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, March 1876, pp. 55-60.
17    Ordeals and Oaths, weekly evening meeting of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, Friday April 7, 1876. By Edward Burnett Tylor, Esq. F.R.S., pp. 1-15 (2 copies)
18    Remarks on the Geographical Distribution of Games. By Edward B. Tylor, Esq., F.R.S. President. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, August 1879, pp. 1-8.
19    Address to the Department of Anthropology of the British Association, Sheffield, August 21, 1879. By Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. pp. 1-8.
20    On the Limits of Savage Religion, By Edward B. Tylor. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, February 1892, pp. 283-299 (2 copies)
21    Exhibition of Charms and Amulets. By Dr. E. B. Tylor. Extracted from Transactions of the International Folk-Lore Congress, 1891, pp. 387-394.
22    Anniversary Address delivered at the Annual General Meeting of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland on January 26th, 1892 by Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S., President. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, May 1892, pp. 396-411 (2 copies).
23    Anniversary Address delivered at the Annual General Meeting of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland on January 24th, 1893 by Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S., President. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, May 1893, pp. 376-384.
24    On the Tasmanians as Representatives of Palaeolithic Man. By Edward B. Tylor, Esq., D.C.L. F.R.S., (read March 21st 1893). Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. XXIII, November 1898, pp. 141-152 with Plates X and XI (3 copies).
25    Four Huron Wampum Records: a Study of Aboriginal American History and Mnemonic Symbols. By Horatio Hale, M.A. (Harvard), F.R.S. (Canada), with Notes and Addenda by Prof. E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. XXVI, February 1897, pp. 221-254, with Plates XI-XIV.
26    On the Survival of Palaeolithic Conditions in Tasmania and Australia with Especial Reference to the Modern Use of Unground Stone Implements in West Australia. By Professor E. B. Tylor, F.R.S. Paper presented to British Association, Bristol, Section of Anthropology, September 9, 1898, 1p. (2 copies).
27    Animism in theory and practice: E. B. Tylor's unpublished 'Notes on ''spiritualism'' '. By George W. Stocking Jr. (University of Chicago). Reprinted from MAN Vol. 6, No. 1, March 1971, pp.88-104. Short letter from George W. Stocking Jr. to Bernard Fagg, Curator of the Pitt Rivers Museum, dated June 10th 1971.

Box 5 – Notes (Manuscript notes for ''New Book'' chapters (unidentified 9/98) and on North America)

1    Ms notes for new book (ff. 1-4), Chapter I - History and Prehistory (ff. 5-13)
2    Chapter II - Eolithic and Palaeolithic ages (ff. 14-22)
3    Chapter III – Magic (ff. 23-25), Chapter IV – Astrology (ff. 26-50)
4    Chapter V – Deluge (ff. 51-59)
5    Chapter VI – Rosary and Prayer Wheel (ff. 60-115)
6    Chapter VII – Games (ff. 116-155)
7    Chapter VIII – Languages (ff. 156-160)
8    Ms Notes on ''North America"" (ff. 161-260)

Box 5A – Notes (Miscellaneous notes on History, Myth and Legend. Miscellaneous correspondence)

1    History in Legend and Myth (ff. 1-76), folio 15 is a letter from E. A. W. Budge. Also bound offprint: The Winged Figures of the Assyrian and other Ancient Monuments, by Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. Reprinted from the ''Proceedings of the Society of Archaeology'', June 1890, pp. 1-11 with Plates I-IV.
2    Oaths and Ordeals (ff. 77-101)
3    Fertilization of Palms (ff. 102-111)
4    Notes for the Chapters (ff. 112-128)
5    Letters and collection of miscellaneous notes (ff. 129-250). F. 129 letter to E. B. Tylor from Le Directeur des Musees Nationaux et de l'Ecole du Louvre, dated 2 Decembre 1897 (letter in French). F. 130 original envelope to f. 129. F. 131 letter to E. B. Tylor from Fairfield, Hitchin, dated 17.VIII.1892. Ff. 132-135 miscellaneous notes. F. 136 letter to E. B. Tylor from Queen's College, Oxford, dated September 10th 1900. Ff. 137-250 various miscellaneous notes.
6    Extracts from published work (ff. 251-255): Ff. 251-252 - Australian Marriage Systems by Andrew Lang from Oxford Magazine October 29th 1902, 2 pages. F. 253 – Die Flutsagen Alterhums under der Naturvolker, von Dr. M. Winternitz. Mittheilungen d. Anthrop. Gesellsch.in Wien Rd. XXXI, 1904, pp. 305-333. F. 254 - Zum Solutreen von Miskolcz von Otto Herman. Mitteilungen d. Anthrop. Gesellsch. in Wien, Bd. XXXVI, 1906, pp.1-11. F. 255 – The Gods of Northern Buddhism, their history, iconography and progressive evolution through the Northern Buddhist Countries, by A. Getty. (includes Authors Preface (2 pages), also pp. 43 and 54, plus Plates XXVII, X and XX). Ff. 256-262 various notes and drawings.

Box 6 – Notes (Miscellaneous notes on Asia, Australia, Oceania, Africa, Europe and South America. Also on couvade)

1    Australia, ff.1-34.
2    Couvade, ff. 35-57.
3    Malaya, ff. 58-105.
4    Melanesia and Polynesia, ff. 106-139.
5    South America, ff. 140-222.
6    Africa, ff. 223-315.
7    Europe, ff. 316-336.
8    India, ff. 337-415.
9    Asia, ff. 416-471.

Box 7 – Notes (Miscellaneous notes on culture, art, race, language and mythology. Letter from W. S. Ashton to E. S. Hartland 23/08/1902 with ms. notes on Japan)

1    Ff. 1-2 - Letter from W. S. Ashton to E. S. Hartland ff.1-2. Ff. 3 - envelope to ff.1-2. Ff. 4-8 ms notes (? Burial custom in Japan). Ff. 9-16 – page proofs pp. 225-256 Arts of Life, dated 25th August 1880, stamped Clay, Sons & Taylor, Bread Street Hill, E.G. Ff. 17-18 – galley proofs 119-121and 137-139 Arts of Life, dated 14th August 1880, stamped Clay, Sons & Taylor, Bread Street Hill, E.G.
2    Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter I, Man, Ancient and Modern pp. 1-47 also numbered as folios 19-67.
3    Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter III, Races of Mankind, pp. 3 and 49-54 also numbered as folios 68-74.
4    Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter IV, Language pp. 1-22 also numbered as folios 75-97.
5    Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter V, Language continued, pp. 2-26 also numbered as folios 98-122.
6    Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter VIII, Arts of Life, pp. 9-23 and 25-27 also numbered as folios 123-140.
7    Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter IX, Arts of Life continued, pp. 1-31, plus 8 figures also numbered as folios 141-179.
8    Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter XI, Arts of Life continued, pp. 9 and 29 also numbered as folios 180-181. Also - Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter XI, Arts of Life continued, pp. 25-33 also numbered as folios 182-190.
9    Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter XII, Arts of Pleasure, pp. 1-25 also numbered as folios 191-215.
10    Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter XIII, Science, pp. 1-26 and 35-43 also numbered as folios 216-250.
11    Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter XIV, The Spirit World ''Barbaric Religion'', pp. 1-31 also numbered as folios 251-281.
12    Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter XV, History and Mythology, pp. 31-34 also numbered as folios 282-285. In addition three unnumbered pages not identified, but re-numbered as folioed 286-288.

Box 8 – Miscellaneous notes

1    Notes for “Chapter V – Language and Race”. 16pp.
2    Notes for “Chapter VII – Writing”. 14pp.
3    Notes for “Chapter VIII – Arts of Life”. 8pp.
4    Notes for “Chapter X – Arts of Life (continued)” 9pp.
5    Notes on writing and language. 7pp.
6    Notes on law and legal systems. 29pp.
7    Notes for “On the Origin of the Plough and the Wheel-Carriage”. 12pp.
8    Notes on human and animal reasoning. 10pp.
9    Thin blue notebook containing pencil notes entitled “Standard Thursday June 30 1887 p.5… A few weeks ago sundry American gentlemen conceived the bold idea of selling a tract of country in Dakota to the English public, under the name of the Harvey Peak Tin Mining Company, for two million pounds…”
10   Three pages of loose miscellaneous notes.

Box 8A - Miscellaneous notes, etc.

1    Anthropology Lecture Book. Register of people attending lectures Hilary Term 1884 –Michaelmas Term 1902.
2    On American Lot-Games as Evidence of Asiatic Intercourse, before the time of Columbus by E. B. Tylor. Separat-Abdruck aus: Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographic, Suppl. zu Bd. IX, 1896, pp. 55-67 with plate V (colour) – (2 copies).
3    Manuscript for “Chapter V, The Garden of Eden and the Deluge”
4    Manuscript for “Preface” (Unidentified book).15 pp
5    Manuscript for Introduction (Unidentified book). 15pp
6    Miscellaneous folder, containing: several notes with drawings, also newspaper cutting from The Academy page 37, July 9, 1892, No. 1053
7    Index Notebook. 280 pp

Box 9 – Assorted chapter drafts and notes

1    Chapter V, Regions of the Spirit-World, pp. 1-41 and p. 44. (Stamped received Oxford University Press, 31 July 1901).
2    Chapter ?, Animism and Science, 37 pp
3    Chapter ?, Animism Conduct, 39 pp
4    Chapter ?, Relation of Animism to Mental and Moral Philosophy, 15 pp
5    Unidentified notes (10 sheets, could be continuation of item 4 in box 9?).
6    Unidentified notes. 7 pp
7    Notes entitled ‘Supernatural’ 7pp
8    ‘Moral Political Religious II' dated Feb 4 1901. 24 pp
9    Notes entitled 'Totemism'. 10 pp
10    Notes entitled 'Marriage'. 2 pp
11    Notes entitled 'Parentage' . 5 pp
12    Draft Chapter (?) on Society, Morals, Laws. 8 pp
13    Notes entitled 'Society Morals Law' 5 pp
14    Notes entitled 'Exogamy'. 2 pp
15    Notes entitled 'Determinism'. 20 pp
16    Conclusion of ‘Chapter VI’. 13 pp
17    Letter dated September 30th 1894 from J. Graham Kerr (Christ's College, Cambridge).

Box 10 – Notes and scrapbooks

1    Letters 1890-1894: Letter from G. Lister dated 28 February 1890. Letter from E. A. Wallis Budge dated March 18 1890. Letter dated 3 February 1894 from Rochdale [signature undecipherable]. Letter with envelope dated November 15 1894 from R. Murdoch Smith. Several sheets including drawings dated January 10 1899, possibly from J. P. Mort?
2    Miscellaneous notes on Totemism (26 pp).
3    Memoire (French manuscript, 8 sections sewn together)
4    Notes entitled 'Deluges' (14 pp).
5    Notes entitled 'Rosaries' (4 pp).
6    Notes entitled 'Magical Signs and Formulas' (12 pp)
7    Notes on ‘The Indian Names of the Rosary and their Occurrence, abstract of a paper which is to contain a full treatment of the single pamages, Ernst Leuman. Also: James on Rosaries extracted from Vol. IX Part II of Transactions of Axiatic Society of Japan, Read April 12, 1881, pp. 173-182.
8    Chapter IV – Language (3 pp).
9    Notes entitled 'Melanesia, Fiji, Polynesia and Tahiti' (3 pp).
10    Notes entitled 'Old and the New World' (4 pp).
11    Notes entitled 'Measure, Weight, Force' (5 pp).
12    Chapter ?, History of Games (7 pp).
13    Notes entitled Dakyu-Japanese Polo (2 pp).
14    Notes entitled 'Baleen & Josaphat' (2 pp).
15    Notes entitled 'Anthropology' (1 p).
16    Notes entitled 'Primitive Culture' (8 pp).
17    Animism Chapter (1 p).
18    Newspaper cutting The Inquirer Sept. 23 1871, pp. 605-608, The Inquirer Oct.7 1871, pp. 637-638 and The Inquirer October 14 1871, 649-652.
19    Chapter 'Winged Spirits' (7 pp).
20    Notes on the 'History of Geology' (4 pp).
21    Notes on 'Captured Details’ (1 p).
22    Chapter II – Tasmanians and Australians (4 pp).
23    Lists of Chapter Headings (35 pp),
24    Notes on Relations des Jesuites dans la Nouville-France (5 pp).
25    Notes on Nikola Damascenus (3 pp).
26    List of Lectures with notes (20 pp).
27    Notes on 'Ghosts' (2 pp).
28    Notes on 'Islam' (1 p).
29    Notes on 'Mathematics' (4 pp).
30    Notes on 'Astronomy – Special Points' (1 p).
31    Notes on 'II Association of Ideas' (2 pp).
32    Notes on 'Professor Spencer Account' (1 p).
33    Notes on 'Spencer and Gillen' (3 pp).
34    Notes for 'Eskimo Dictionary' (1 p).
35    Scrapbook containing photographs, tracings, newspaper cuttings and letters from: S. F. Haverfield 26 April 1894, L. Harris 8 September 1891, 3 October 1891 and 18 April 1892, E. Tylor 26 October 1891 and E. Spurrell 2 November 1891.
36    Scrapbook containing, miscellaneous notes, plates, drawings and photographs. Also letters from: W. Lindsay, L. Harris 26 June 1892 and J. E. Corrie 3 December 1909.
37    Folder containing miscellaneous notes (39 pp).

Box 11 – Correspondence A-F, (excluding Franz BOAS and Lorimer FISON which is stored separately in Box 11A – see list below)


1    ALGER, Miss A.L. (BOSTON) 1 March 1886 Thanking EBT for a letter and three articles. References to Mc FRANK CUSHING, and to Indian games.
1a    ALGER, Miss A.L. (BOSTON) 3 Jan 1897 Thanking EBT for sending his paper on American Lot Games.
2    d’ALVIELLE, G. (BRUSSELS) 15 Jan 1906 Anticipating EBT’s forthcoming book. The writers own archaeological essays. W.G. Aston’s SHINTO, The Way of the Gods. Pencil Notes, presumably by EBT, on envelope.
3    ANDERSON, W.C.F. (ORIEL COLLEGE, OXFORD) undated Commending article on AMENTUM in the Dictionnaire des Antiquities (HACHETTE). Pencil note, presumably by EBT reads: “Dart throwing in YORKSHIRE”.
4    ANNADALE, T.N. (BALLIOL COLLEGE, OXFORD) 16 Nov 1899 Malayan Expressions. “Five tails” “PAWONGS”. A reference to SKEAT’s reports. Pencil Notes on envelope: “5 tail of NANTUS”.
5    ASHBY, W.H. (SOMERSET) 28 Jan 1887 Acknowledgement a letter from EBT. Note on envelope: “Witches ladder”
6    ASTON, W.G. (NAGASAKI, JAPAN) 11 April 1884 Letter concerning dispatch of a case of ancient Japanese pottery for the Museum of the Anthropological Society. Attached is a memorandum (6 sheets) about these specimens. Pencil note on memorandum: “Dep. in Mus. Feb. 22 1886”


1    BALDWIN, J.M. (OXFORD) 12 Dec 1899 Inviting EBT to become Consulting Editor of the “Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology”. A MS note, presumably by EBT reads: “Dec. 13: refused”.
2    BALDWIN-SPENCER Professor (Note: See under Professor Sir Baldwin Spencer)
3    BATES, O. (Note: This name is given in the typed master list pasted inside Box 6 (1), but no letter found.) Letter now found. 3 June 1885 Mounds in Southern CALIFORNIA
4    BELL, A.M. (NOTE: Name given in typed master list, but no letter found.) Letter now found. 19 Feb Sending specimens to EBT.
5    BIRDWOOD, H. (SURAT, INDIA) 28 August Replying to an enquiry made about a) the BANIAN region, and b) a game called VAGH BAKARI, which resembles draughts. The envelope contains a copy or draft of EBT’s reply.
6    BOAS, F. – See separate list below for BOAS correspondence in Box 11A
7    BOWES, J.L. (LIVERPOOL) 3 Dec 1893 His collection of Japanese Kakemono.
8    BRAYSHAW, T. (SETTLE) 22 Oct 1887 Information about dart-throwing as practised in Yorkshire. Includes a letter on the same subject to a Mr STYLE, dated 17 Oct 1887.
9    BRODIE, Sir B.C. (TORQUAY) 15 May 1879 Information about HOPSCOTCH, and a version seen played at Florence. MS notes by EBT on letter and envelope.
10    BROWN, A.W. 13 Oct 1897 Sending a “tongue tip” which is not now in envelope.
11    BROWN, Rev. G. (SYDNEY) 22 April 1882 Reply to EBT’s last letter. Language questions in New Britain. Did traders from MALAYSIA exercise influence? A custom in Duke of York’s Island. A warning against Mr. Wilfred POWELL. Mr. PRATT a suitable person to take on the Comparative Dictionary of Polynesian NOTE: envelope contained an object handle to P.U. 22.5.77.
12    BURNELL, A. (TANGORE, INDIA) 16 Oct 1879 Information about games in reply to an enquiry by EBT.
13    BUSH, G.W. (LONDON) 29 Dec 1882 Reply to inquiry from EBT about VEDDAH skulls.


1    CHAMBERLAIN, B.H. (TOKIO) 31 Mar 1883 Introducing himself and sending a volume of the “Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan”. Offering certain criticisms of Japanese references in E.B.T. in new work “Anthropology”.
2    CHAMBERLAIN, B.H. 4 Oct 1883 Acknowledging a letter from E.B.T., and promising to send polo rackets and balls. References to other items, including:- the none-flute, terra-cotta figures of men and animals, ancient pottery (GIOGI-YAKI), scorded tortoise-shells and shoulder-blades of deer, praise of E.B.T.’s paper on the “KO-JI-KI”, the “GO-HEI”, and AINU people and their borrowing from the Japanese. Enclosed is a sheet of a letter from Mr. ASTON, British Counsul in KOBE, offering to send E.B.T. specimens.
3    CHAMBERLAIN, B.H. 2 Feb 1884 Details of dispatch of polo rackets and balls etc. Also some Korean pans.
4    CHAMBERLAIN, B.H. 29 Feb 1884 (3 sheets) Details of the cost of dispatch above. Mr ASTONE (now consult in NAGASAKI) is sending specimens. Further reference to the “GO-HEI”. The origins of AINU culture. Japanese debt to CHINA, and Chinese debt to INDIA. Enclosed is a letter from Capt. BRINKLEY, Editor of “The Japanese Mail”. About face painting by Japanese actors with notes in amplification by B.H.C. himself.
5    CHAMBERLAIN, B.H. 10 July 1884 Acknowledging E.B.T.’s thanks for the polo material. The history of Polo. It came to Japan from CHINA. It may have originated further west.
6    CHAMBERLAIN, B.H. 1 April 1885 B.H.C. has sent off a shipment of specimens to be shared between the Bodleian and the Pitt Rivers. References to rosaries, and to games and their rules. The letter includes a passage (crossed out by someone, E.B.T.) asking his help in pressing the cause of Romanisation in Japan by getting an article into an English newspaper.
7    CHAMBERLAIN, B.H. 10 Oct 1885 Sending a pack of Japanese playing cards by hand of Mr. J.M. James.
8    CHAMBERLAIN, B.H. (TOKIO) 15 Nov 1888 Introducing Mr. W. GOWLAND, described as the authority on Japanese archaeology, who is going to London.
9    (2 sheets) The correspondence includes a paper dated 3 January 1894, in E.B.T.’s handwriting (perhaps a copy of an original sent to B.H.C.), headed “Notes and Enquiries as to 4 KAKEMONOS”. Attached to this is a paper containing B.H.C.’s answers to some of the enquiries.
10    CHAMBERLAIN, B.H. (LONDON) 22 Nov 1896 Characterisation of the AINU people. “Young SAVAGE LANDOR” not entirely trustworthy as an authority. A Quinary method of counting used by the LUCHUAN peasantry, and the tallies they employ.
11    CHEAL, P.E. (AUCKLAND, N.Z.) 13 Sept 1901 Sending E.B.T. two newspapers containing photos of carvings in a carved house (MAORI) in N.Z.
12    CODRINGTON, R.H. (WADHAM COLLEGE, OXFORD) 9 June 1884 Unable to help E.B.T. with interpretation of a word (apparently of FIJIAN origin).
13    CODRINGTON, R.H. (WADHURST) 1 March 1890 Sending E.B.T. part of his M.S. for criticism.
14    CODRINGTON, R.H. (CHICHESTER) 14 May 1898 CODRINGTON’s view on Totemism.
15    CODRINGTON, R.H. (CHICHESTER) 6 Dec 1902 MELANESIAN practises as regards the naming of children.
16    COMPTON, T. (WESTERN SUPER-MARE) 29 Dec 1882 Water Divining and Divining rods. Wm COOKWORTHY the potter of PLYMOUTH, and his M.S. work on divining.
17    CORDIER, H. (PARIS) 15 July 1900 Asking E.B.T. for information about the COUVADE.
18    CORDIER, H. (PARIS) 1 Jan 1902 A reminder about the above.
19    CORDIER, H. (PARIS) 8 May 1902 Thanks for having provided the above.
20    CULIN, S. 23 Dec 1896 Thanking E.B.T. for having sent him a copy of his “American Lot Games” paper. Sending E.B.T. a paper about a game called MANCALA.
21    CURREY, Miss undated Describing a “Luck’s Plate” from N. BAVARIA. E.B.T. has noted “From Miss Currey”.
22    CLARKE, H.B. 17 Aug (?1892) Information about COUVADE


1    DALLAS, J.G. (MUSSOORIE, INDIA) 23 March 1883 Sending specimens of Indian rosaries.
2    DAWSON, J. (GLASGOW) 21 July 1882 Thanking E.B.T. for his review in “NATURE” of his (DAWSON’s). “Australian Aborigines”. Difficulties met with in sending E.B.T. further information about “Message Sticks”. Sending a full-sized drawing. This is not now with the correspondence.
3    A document headed “Report 1893. On the North-Western Tribes of Canada”, which appears to be E.B.T.’s M.S. draft of the Committee’s report.
4    From E.B.T. to G.M. DAWSON, dated 5 Oct 1895 (M.S. copy) The British Association has granted £100 to the Committee. E.B.T. sends Boas’s last letter. Discussion of the possibility of raising further funds, perhaps in the United States. Attached is M.S. copy of E.B.T.’s letter of the same date to Boas, putting him in the picture.
5    DAWSON, G.M. to E.B.T. dated 28 Oct 1895 Dawson’s reply to the above. Problems of raising money. Reference to the “Present very economical attitude of the Canadian Government”. Dawson agrees with E.B.T. that Boas’s work for the Committee should be kept separate from work commissioned from the United States. Attached is E.B.T.’s reply (M.S. copy) to the above explaining how some of the problems have arisen.
6    DAWSON, G.M. to E.B.T. dated 11 May 1896 Sending E.B.T. a copy of Harrison’s HAIDA Grammar. Financial problems in Canada. A government grant is doubtful and will in any case be delayed. References to Boas’s work, some critical.
7    DAWSON, G.M. to E.B.T. dated 26 Mar 1897 Sending E.B.T. a typed copy of a letter dated 19 March 1897 from Boas to Dawson. Boas’s plan of publishing the results of the year’s work in the B.A. reports. The need for republication of certain other works.
8    DAWSON, G.M. to E.B.T. dated 24 April 1897 Sending E.B.T. the M.S. of Boas’s Report.
9    DAWSON, G.M. to E.B.T. dated 26 Aug 1897 Informing E.B.T. that the British Association meeting in Toronto has been very successful. A hint of financial problems arising out of Boas having combined two commissions for work.
10    DAWSON, G.M. to E.B.T. dated 17 Nov 1897 Financial details concerning Boas’s work. Dawson has some dissatisfactions. “It is just as well that the arrangement is now coming to an end”. A reference to “Harrison” and his anthropological collections.
11    A document, apparently in E.B.T.’s writing, listing the stocks available of the Committee’s Reports.
12    A printed list of the ‘Staff of Baldwin’s Dictionary of Philosophy and Pyschology’.
13    Nine envelopes addressed to E.B.T.
14    DICKINS, F.V. (LONDON) 13 March 1882 Sending information about Japanese swords/
15    DICKINS, F.V. (LONDON) 17 Apr 1882 (2 sheets) More information about Japanese swords, and the custom of wearing two.
16    DILLON, Lord (DITCHLEY) 14 Nov 1890 Thanking E.B.T. for his Paper on American Lot Games. An enquiry about “Patience” games.


1    ELTON, C.I. 13 Nov 1896 Acknowledging E.B.T.’s paper on American Lot games.
2    EVANS, Sir Arthur (KNOSSOS, CRETE) 26 May 1901 Information re: excavations at Knossos.
3    EVANS, Sir John (HEMEL HEMPSTEAD) 18 Feb 1878 Enclosing letter from Mr. HAYTER re: Stone Circle near Mt. Elephant in Australia and cutting from Illus. Australian News 9.4.1877
3a    E.B.T. to Sir John EVANS (WELLINGTON, SOMESET) 3 July 1877, 20 May 1879, 27 July 1879 Anthropological business. Series of 8 letters concerning the internal politics of the Anthropological Institute and the appointment of its secretary and the role of the General Pitt Rivers. (see also: Tylor. L.1) NB: this correspondence was sent to T.K. Penniman by Joan Evans in 1942). 2 letters re: point of etymology. 23 July 1880, 26 July 1880. Would J.E. write on the Lisbon Conference for journal? 26 Dec 1880. E.B.T.’s travels. Comments on religion and fire-kindling. 20 Mar 1881
4    EVANS, Sir John (HEMEL HEMPSTEAD) 10 May 1886 Considers specimen of Coscinopora Globularis to be natural, not artificial.
5    EVANS, Sir John (HEMEL HEMPSTEAD) 13 Nov 1896 Thank E.B.T. for paper on American Lot games.
6    EVE, A.S. (MARLBOROUGH) 23 Oct 1887 Trying to obtain cutting from The Globe about arrow throwing.


1    FAIRBAIRN, A.M. (MANSFIELD COLLEGE, OXFORD) 3 Nov Introducing Mr. B.J. PADSHAW (see correspondence under the letter P). At the foot of this letter E.B.T. has added in pencil a note about COUVADE in GUZERAT (INDIA).
2    FEWKES, J.W. (WASHINGTON D.C., U.S.A.) 22 May 1897 (2 sheets) Sending a photograph of a mortuary food basin which may be of interest in relation to games. The photograph is enclosed.
3    FORBES, W.H. (BALLIOL COLLEGE, OXFORD) 9 Mar 1896 Giving the references for certain Greek passages.
4    FORNANDER, A. (HAWAII) 24 Apr 1880 (2 sheets) Thanking E.B.T. for a letter and copy of his paper on the “Geographical Distribution of Games”. Giving details of a Hawaiian game “KONANE”, with a sketch of the board it is played on. A draft of copy of E.B.T.’s reply dated 5 Sept 1880 is attached.
5    FORNANDER, A. (HAWAII) 31 Jan 1881 (3 sheets) Reply to E.B.T.’s letter above. Further details of the game “KONANE”. Defence, at length, of the views expressed in his book on “The Polynesian Race”. Another sketch of the KONANE board is attached.
6    FORSYTH, T.D. (SLOUGH) 9 June 1883 Discussing the game of POLO as played in the region of TIBET.
7    FOX, C.H. (WELLINGTON, SOMERSET) 7 Dec 1896 Thanking E.B.T. for sending him Professor EDWARDS’ “Book of Sports”. Personal news, including references to early motor-vehicles.
8    FRAZER, J.G. (TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE) 4 Dec 1896 Thanking E.B.T. for sending his paper on “Lot Games”. News of a History of UGANDA written by its “native prime-minister”. A reference to the “deplorable ravages of Christianity and civilisation among the people…”.
9    FRAZER, R. 22 Nov 1884 Sending E.B.T. some specimens, and giving information about the American Indian games.
10    FRAZER, R. (PHILADELPHIA, U.S.A.) 17 Feb 1885 Thanking E.B.T. for a letter and some papers on anthropology. A few details about Indian games.
11    FRAZER, R. 19 Jan 1897 Thanking E.B.T. for a copy of his paper on “Lot Games”, and recalling their meeting in ARIZONA.
12    FREEMAN, Mrs E. (WELLS, SOMERSET) 21 Jan 1883 The Tylors had evidently been staying with the Freemans. Mrs. Freeman writes to Mrs. Tylor with some personal details. A reference to water divining.
     (NOTE: Kept in this F envelope are a number of photocopies of letters exchanged between E.B.T. and J.G. FRAZER which are on the files at Trinity College, Cambridge.) They were given by Professor ACKERMAN of Colombia University, New York, who describes them as “an interesting, prickly exchange”.

Box 11A – correspondence with Franz BOAS and Lorimer FISON

Correspondence from Franz BOAS (between 1888–1902)

1    F.B. (NEW YORK) 4 Oct 1888 Acknowledging a paper received from E.B.T., F.B.’s interest in continuing work in British Columbia if the British Association gets permission to continue its work there. The problems of working in that region. E.B.T.’s statistical method for studying social institutions.
2    F.B. (NEW YORK) 6 Mar 1889 (2 sheets) F.B. has concluded the Report commissioned by “The Committee” on his 1888 trip to British Columbia. Problems and the methods adopted for dealing with them. The need for time and money.
3    F.B. (NEW YORK) 18 Apr 1889 Sending a cranium for presentation to E.B.T.’s museum. F.B. is leaving for Europe on 2 May.
4    F.B. (BERLIN) 5 June Enquiring whether E.B.T. has any news of the Canadian Government’s grant to support F.B.’s planned trip to British Columbia in summer 1889.
5    F.B. (BERLIN) 6 Jul 1889 Reporting that he has not yet received definite instructions. His suggestions for his programme of work in British Columbia. The terms on which he would be willing to take up residence in Victoria for a part of the year.
6    F.B. (WORCESTER, U.S.A.) 17 Nov 1889 F.B. has sent a specimen to E.B.T. He has accepted a year’s appointment at Clark University, which had opened only six weeks before.
7    F.B. (WORCESTER, U.S.A.) 19 Dec 1889 The possibility of the vocabularies F.B. had collected in British Columbia. Could E.B.T. get them published in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute?
8    F.B. (WORCESTER, U.S.A.) 16 Jan 1890 Details regarding specimens sent by F.B. to Dr. DAWSON and E.B.T. F.B. has sent his vocabularies to E.B.T. Spoons and their legends. Divisions of tribes into gentes suspended in winter, and replaced by division into class. Early days at Clarke University.
9    F.B. (SAN FRANCISCO) 31 Dec 1894 (3 sheets) F.B. has finished his book for the “Committee of the British Association”. He is sorry to learn that the committee expects to be discontinued. Doing the book properly would really have needed several more trips. The results of his trip in summer 1894. The close interrelation of myth and ritual and the development of the theatre from ritual.
10    F.B. (COBLENZ) 27 Jun 1895 Thanking E.B.T for hospitality. He has written to “The Nation” about the attitude of the University of Oxford towards Anthropology and hopes this may have some beneficial effect. He has met people in London to discuss continuing work in British Columbia.
11    F.B. (NEW BRANDENBURG) 29 Jul 1895 Sending E.B.T. a brief statement regarding the work in British Columbia to be used in connection with the application for a further grant from the Committee. Reference to a letter from a theologian opposing Anthropology at Oxford on theological grounds.
12    F.B. (NEW YORK) 18 Jan 1896 A problem regarding misprints of the last report of the Committee in summer 1896 because he has taken charge of the Ethnological material in the American Museum of Natural History, New York.
13    F.B. (NEW YORK) 5 Jun 1896 (2 sheets) F.B.’s correspondence with Dr. DAWSON about the proposed field work on behalf of the Committee of the British Association Funds are insufficient, and work cannot be undertaken in the summer. Possibilities and requirements for fieldwork next year. Criticisms of books written and edited by CHAMBERLAIN. Congratulations to E.B.T. on overcoming the opposition in Oxford to having Anthropology recognised as special department.
14    F.B. (NEW YORK) 12 Dec 1896 Acknowledging a photograph of a mask sent by E.B.T. F.B.’s comments with pen and ink sketches. This letter contains some related notes on Ratcliffe Library paper.
15    F.B. (NEW YORK) 8 Mar 1897 F.B. has raised additional funds in New York and will be working in British Columbia from June-September.
16    F.B. (NEW YORK) Apr 1897 (3 sheets) Fuller details of the ample funds raised and of the proposed programme of work. F.B. will be working in Asia (Siberia) in spring 1898. He has written a report of the work done for the B.A. Committee in British Columbia, to be read at the Toronto meeting of the B.A.
17    F.B. (NEW YORK) 1 Dec 1898 (2 sheets) Problems concerning the reprinting of the reports of the Committee on the North-Western Tribes. The Council of the British Association is doubtful about authorising this. F.B. advances some arguments in favour, including information about the JESUP North Pacific Expeditions. Attached is a copy of F.B.’s letter of 2 Dec 1898 to Mr. G. GRIFFITH, Secretary British A.A.S. giving F.B.’s point of view (2 sheets).
18    F.B. (NEW YORK) 2 Jun 1902 (2 sheets) F.B. explains the significance of a raven mask which E.B.T. had sent him some years ago.
     NOTE: Correspondence TYLOR- Dr. G.M.DAWSON (Geological Survey of Canada) about the North-Western Tribes Committee and the work it commissioned is filed under DAWSON.

Correspondence with the Rev. LORIMER FISON (between 1879–1895)

1    6 June 1879 The E.B.T.- FISON correspondence begins with a letter from Major-General A. LANE FOX enclosing from E.B.T. to see a letter of 4 Aug 1878 from FISON. This letter had been sent to LANE FOX by Sir Arthur GORDON, and was apparently returned to the latter. LANE FOX’s letter discussed personnel problems at the Anthropological Institute. Attached is a note, thought to be in E.B.T.’s writing summarising the contents of FISON’s letter.
     The correspondence proper begins:
2    L.F. (FIJI) 17 August 1879 Thanking E.B.T. for a letter which has cleared up a misunderstanding about missing correspondence. Describing the background to and problems facing his joint work with A.W. HOWITT. Particulars of some work he has done which might interest E.B.T. Defence of “MORGAN” against Sir John LUBBOCK and “MCLENNAN”.
3    L.F. (FIJI) 9 Nov 1879 Discussion of points on which E.B.T. has differed from “MORGAN”, news of forthcoming publications of FISON and HOWITT’s joint work.
4    L.F. (FIJI) 3 Dec 1879 FISON is afraid that the letter above was misaddressed and may have gone astray. He therefore more or less repeats its contents.
5    L.F. (FIJI) 16 Jan 1880 Sending a paper on the customs of MOTA. A possible primitive link with Freemasonary? The missionary attitude to savage customs. Fijian customs; marriage, and succession to the priestly office.
6    L.F. (FIJI) 18 May 1880 Acknowledging a letter from E.B.T. A paper of FISON’s is to be published. News of the FISON/HOWITT book. Praise of HOWITT.
7    L.F. (FIJI) 24 Jan 1880 (2) Thanking E.B.T. for his help over publishers. FISON is nervous about the English critiques of his book. A dispute with another Australian Anthropologist. Instances of expiration for marriage, regulated by “class-rule”. Aboriginal marriage customs.
8    L.F. (FIJI) 1 Mar 1881 (3) More thanks to E.B.T. How FISON learned the Fijian language and problems it caused. Discussion of the “bullroarer”. Questions of chalect and the work of Colonel MALLERY on them. E.B.T. has helped FISON over a petition to the Colonial Office for free postage. An enquiry into the “narrowing” of skulls. FISON defends himself against the charge of “hitting for hitting’s sake”. He resists false charges against his Mission. Further discoveries by HOWITT. List of persons to whom E.B.T. is to send copies of FISON’s “Burial Customs”.
9    L.F. (FIJI) 30 March 1881 Sending E.B.T. some M.S.S. of Mr. CODRINGTON’s work, which FISON has annotated. The value of his work. More information about a “narrowed skull” peoples. The frizzy hair of the FIJIANS. The bow as a weapon among the Melanesians. The avoidance of familiarity between relatives by marriage in FIJI. A case in point. A Mission meeting attended by over 200 men, using many dialects. Instances of the FIJIANS imaginative powers. More praise of CODRINGTON.
10    L.F. (FIJI) 14 April 1881 FISON’s paper on “Burial Customs” has been issued and he thanks E.B.T. for copies. Mention of a critical review of FISON and HOWITT’s book in “The Saturday Review”.
11    L.F. (FIJI) 23 May 1881 A note on a new word FISON has learned of, to be added to CODRINGTON’s list. FISON modestly admits his slight knowledge.
12    L.F. (FIJI) 15 July 1881 Thanking E.B.T. for his review of “our work” in the “Academy”. The origins’ of exogamy, relations between fathers and daughters. An attack on FISON and HOWITT by Mr. McLENNAN in “Nature”. Some philosophical information collected on a visit to ROTUMA. Dr. MACFARLAINE’s system of traning relationships which FISON considers irrelevant to the notions of relationship held by “savages”. Resemblances between Central African and Fijian words.
13    L.F. (FIJI) 30 July 1881 Asking E.B.T. to make certain alterations in the CODRINGTON papers previously sent to him. Thanks to E.B.T. for his review, and defence against the criticisms of others, particularly McLENNAN. Sexual relationships within families.
14    L.F. (FIJI) 12 Aug 1881 Sending E.B.T. 31 Fijian fables. A description of kites flown in ROTUMA.
15    L.F. (FIJI) 13 Aug 1881 (2) Thanking E.B.T. for the gift of a copy of his “Anthropology”. He has sent E.B.T. a number of Fijian riddles, and now quotes another one. A children’s vocabulary for counting from 1 to 10. An enquiry about the Ethnographic Institution of Paris, which has offered membership.
16    L.F. (FIJI) 23 Sept 1881 Acknowledging a letter from E.B.T., and thanking him for the trouble he has taken over “my Land Tenure”. Mr Mc LENNAN has died. E.B.T. is planning to make up a sort of record out of extracts from FISON’s letter. Discussion of the action E.B.T. is taking with CODRINGTON’s papers.
17    L.F. (FIJI) 26 Sept 1881 More thanks to E.B.T. for help over the Land Tenure papers. Further discussion of the record to be put together out of extracts from FISON’s letters. Lengthy details of tribal sexual practises tending to prove “communism” as an expiatory measure. FISON’s rule of work in making enquiries. Further criticism from a reviewer in “The Saturday Review”. The meaning of “MAORI” in New Zealand. A possible but doubtful link between Central Africa and Fiji.
18    L.F. (FIJI) 27 Sept 1881 Details of letters FISON has written recently to E.B.T. Particulars of Mr. E.O’B. HEFFERNAN, a government official married to a Fijian woman. Further details of sexual practises. The disease called NDONGAI. HOWITT has made an important aboriginal contact. The ROTUMA language.
19    L.F. (FIJI) 7 Nov 1881 Sending E.B.T. a rough sketch of a tribal Sacred Enclosure. HOWITT has been making important discoveries. His standing among the Australian aborigines.
20    L.F. (FIJI) 20 Dec 1881 FISON is taking his family on a trip to Australia. His domestic burdens.
21 L.F. (MELBOURNE) 3 Mar 1882 (2) Written after arrival in Australia. His plans for the future. The need to find another job will keep him out of scientific work in future. Fijian indecent riddles. HOWITT is the man to refer to about Australian “message sticks”. Criticisms of Mr. DAWSON’s work. Efforts to obtain a nose-flute for E.B.T. How it is played. Scepticism about “message sticks”. Agreement with E.B.T.’s views on Primitive Marriage. The meaning of the words MAORI in New Zealand, and MURRI in Australia. His is convinced of the accuracy of his views about “the rights of the old men in Australia”.
22    L.F. (MELBOURNE) 8 Mar 1882 FISON has just returned from a visit to HOWITT, bringing back a lot of material. He is grateful to E.B.T. for references in his presidential address to the Anthropological Insitute. Clarification of his misunderstood views on a primitive state of promiscuity. His belief in a “Divine impulse” where natural causes fail. More views about “the rights of the old man”. Mr. ROE and his invention of a “NICTOGRAPH”.
23    L.F. (MELBOURNE) 18 Apr 1882 More efforts to get a nose-flute for E.B.T. Discussion of the “gens” and the savage “division”. Possible relationship between “savage rites” and Freemasonry.
24    L.F. (FIJI) 23 Aug 1882 (2) a disappointment about a nose-flute. FISON has no reason to believe that there are any relics of a higher culture among the Australians. More views about “absolute promiscuity” and its role as expiation (NOTE: a reference to a letter to E.B.T. dated 4th Feb 1880 which is missing from this collection). A philological discovery by CODRINGTON. Scepticism about the connections of languages with Malay. Thanks to E.B.T. for getting the “Riddles” published in the (?) Anthropological “Jour”.
25    L.F. (FIJI) 3 Oct 1882 Sending E.B.T. a nose-flute, and revised instructions on playing it. A suggestion by CODRINGTON about the “house-mound” and its height. The rule of exogamy, and its connection with the killing of new-born twins of different sex.
26    L.F. (FIJI) 27 Dec 1882 Thanking E.B.T. for a copy of the Jour of the Anthropological Institution containing the FISON/HOWITT paper on “From Mother-right to Father-right”. HOWITT and his programmes of work. He is now the “acknowledged Great Medicine Man”. FISON is despondent about himself, and the prospect of doing more anthropological work. Resemblances between African and Fijian place-names. FISON has accepted E.B.T.’s advice to abstain from controversy. His views have been misunderstood by critics.
27    L.F. (FIJI) 26 Jan 1883 Discussion of the practise of avoidance of the father-in-law and the mother-in-law, and the distinction between the two. Australian origins in Asia, and possibly Central Africa. The Great Mystery of Initiation- the ceremonial admission of young men into full membership of the community, on which FISON is preparing a detailed statement. CODRINGTON and some of his recent discoveries. Defence of the “savages” both as regards to intellect and morality. Their methods of reassuring out changes in patterns of behaviour. Misunderstandings in the European mind. The need for the term “TOTEMY” to describe a division with descept through females.
28    L.F. (FIJI) 14 Apr 1883 Another disappointment about nose-flute. Further discussions of “house-mounds” and the meaning of their height. Old Testament analogies. Mr. FRAZER and his foolish paper about the connection between Australian and Sanskrit words. The shape of skulls in Fiji is artificially induced. Praise of HOWITT and his immense capacity for work. Dispondency about FISON’s own future.
29    L.F. (FIJI) 13 June 1883 Sending a water colour sketch of a “Stone Enclosure”. Continuing enquiries into the secret NANGA ceremony, the initiation of young men into the tribe. Link with the Greek “Mysteries”. The shallowness of civilisation. References to CODRINGTON and HOWITT. Discovery of a spear with a human thumb-nail attached, and its meaning.
30    L.F. (FIJI) 26 July 1883 Congratulations on E.B.T., and the University, on his appointment to Oxford. Resemblances between African and Fijian names. A humorous anecdote about buying a nose-flute. The sketch referred to in No. 29 above has proved to be unsatisfactory. The habitat of the NANGA custom. Particulars of HOWITT’s recent work. Hoping for E.B.T.’s criticism of a recent paper on “Attic Demos etc”.
31    L.F. (FIJI) 17 Aug 1883 (3) Mingled praise and criticism of Sir. H. Maine’s “work” sent by E.B.T. Main has misunderstood the “savage” mind and heart. Another nose-flute and some fish-hooks have been sent to E.B.T. for the museum. Defence of missionaries against the charge (by Sir Arthur Gordon) of land speculation. Sending the paper on the NANGA ceremony and another sketch of the Stone Enclosure. Disbelief in the “cannibal experiences” of Baron MAKLAY in Fiji. NOTE: Two small P.S. attached on separate sheets.
32    L.F. (FIJI) 30 Aug 1883 Details of the specimen sent to E.B.T., including a NANGA trumpet/ Again asking for criticism of the “Attic Demes etc” paper, which has been seen and approved by Dr. HEARN of McPhourne University. FISON is leaving FIJI for good at the end of the year.
33    L.F. (MELBOURNE) 18 Feb 1884 FISON has moved to Australia and has been very pp- ? a nervous breakdown. References to specimens he has sent to E.B.T. The NANGA trumpet was of the wrong kind. HOWITT’s paper on “Initiation”, and the theory that indecent pantomines are intended to be incentives to virtue.
34    L.F. (MELBOURNE) 17 May 1884 Details of specimens sent or to be sent to E.B.T. Acknowledging E.B.T.’s comments on CODRINGTON’s papers and on the “The Deme and the Horde” paper. FISON’s general health is improved, but he cannot yet do brain work.
35    L.F. (MELBOURNE) 28 Feb 1885 (2) FISON has received copies of various FISON/HOWITT papers, some with serious misprints. E.B.T. had revised and corrected them. Remarks on BONNEY’s paper on the DARLING tribes. FISON and HOWITT have been elected corresponding members of the Anthropological Institute.
36    L.F. (MELBOURNE) 4 Dec 1886 (4) FISON is still unwell, and has not written for a long time. He cannot get Fijian specimens for E.B.T. because Government officials and others “have cleaned them all off”. Shell money and its influences upon savage society. FISON’s modest estimate of his own work; he has got others to work. Customs, money and the “legal” system among tribes in New Britain. Dr. CARROLL who is making investigations among the South Sea Islanders, and his theories.
37    L.F. (MELBOURNE) 25 Mar 1887 FISON has had a letter from E.B.T. introducing “Mr. Spencer”. (? Baldwin Spencer). Mention of “DANKS” in his paper which FISON has helped with; “BROWN” who was in New Britain and has a fine collection of weapons; and CODRINGTON’s new living. The troubles in TONGA which FISON had forescess. The “tabu” signs about which E.B.T. has enquired. Fijian specimens which E.B.T. has asked for. FISON is shy about sending E.B.T. a photograph of himself.
38    L.F. (SYDNEY) 3 Nov 1887 A paper of “DANKS” on Marriage Customs. Efforts to get “BROWN” to write a book. FISON would help as he helped CODRINGTON to write his book. Criticism of Mr. CURR’s book on the Australian aborigines. FISON has suggested to HOWITT that he should send his materials on to the DIERI tribe for publication by the Anthropological Institute.
39    L. F. (FLEMINGTON) 23 Nov 1887 (2) FISON has paid a visit to HOWITT to discuss the paper on the DIERI tribe, and thinks very highly of it. Marriage customs among the DIERI. He defends himself against CURR’s criticisms. HOWITT is preparing a paper on Message Sticks.
40    L.F. (MELBOURNE) 2 June 1888 (4) E.B.T. has made an enquiry on a point relating to sons-in-law and fathers-in-law which FISON has referred to HOWITT, whose reply is enclosed in the original. A description of travel in the past through the Australian Alps. The line being followed in combating CURR’s criticisms. FISON defends himself against being considered a “man of war”. In the “diggings” he was know as “the Peacemaker”.
41    L.F. (MELBOURNE) 4 May 1889 FISON has received E.B.T.’s paper on “The Method of Investigating the Development of Institutions”. He and HOWITT have both failed to understand the diagrams. “Couvade” and the naming of children in Fiji.
42    L.F. (MELBOURNE) 29 Sept 1893 (2) A visit from Mr. S.F. PEAL of Assam. Marriage customs among head-hunters. Mr. PEAL is “an invaluable man”. An awkward situation in connection with TREGEAR’s Maori Comprehensive Dictionary. Criticism of CARROLL and his translation of the inscription upon the Easter Island stones.
43    L.F. (MELBOURNE) 18 Oct 1893 (?) (2) A further reference to E.B.T.’s paper on “The Method of Investigating etc etc”. (See No. 41 above). Raising a number of points on names in relation to family divisions. Paternal and maternal descent. Criticism of certain points made by E.B.T. Modest assessment by FISON of the value of many of his theories.
44    L.F. (MELBOURNE) 30 Apr 1894 (3) FISON has had an invitation to the British Association meeting at Oxford. He had declined, but “Spencer” and others are insisting that he goes. Mention of the philologist Sidney H. Ray, and his knowledge of Melanesian languages. Mr. FELLOWES and his researchers in New Guinea. E.B.T.’s paper on Tasmanians. Did they have hatchets with handles? Criticisms of WESTERMARK’s “theory”. The derivation of the word “beach comber”. Discoveries of gold, and the role of the Banks.
45    L.F. (IPSWICH) 31 Aug 1894 FISON has reached England, and is arranging to go and stay a day or two with the Tylors.
46    19 Oct 1894 (on board ship) On his way back to Australia. A brief letter of thanks.
47    L.F. (MELBOURNE) 6 Dec 1894 Clearing up a number of points which came up in his discussions with E.B.T. A revealing anecdote about the dreams of a Fijian man. Basil Thomson’ s theory of the “happy hunting ground”. Strong criticism of “Fraser” in Melbourne. “A disgrace to science”. FISON sends kind regards to Mr. Balfour, and records how much he enjoyed his visit to the “Museum”.
48    L.F. (MELBOURNE) 5 Aug 1895 Congratulating E.B.T. on his appointment to a Chair. He has heard that Anthropology has been made one of the University courses, and would like details of the arrangements. He and HOWITT are considering a new edition of their book. Baldwin Spencer has met a Mr. GILLANS (GILLEN) who is an excellent man. Mr. Balfour has been ill.
49    An undated half-sheet headed “Memo” in FISON’s handwriting. References to Fijian words, tabus among certain tribes, and the meaning of certain terms relating to Land Tenure.
50    One and a half sheets of an unidentified letter, on tissue paper and barely legible.

Box 12 – correspondence G – K (including Hale and Howitt, up to Knowles)


1    GALTON, F. (LONDON) 13 Nov 1896 Discussion of methodology in appraising chances, with reference to Lot Games.
2    GODWIN, AUSTIN, COL. (LONDON) 14 June 1878 Discussion of the game of PACHISI and E.B.T.’s description of it.
3    GOWLAND, W. (LONDON) 14 Apr 1894 Sending E.B.T. an old print of the MANDARA of TAYEMEDERA (YAMATO). A handwritten paper (5 sheets) entitled “A Description of the Hell” is attached.
4    GRIFFITHS, G. (LONDON) 19 June 1895 Asking for Dr BOAS’s address in England. A reference to “the old theological intolerance” which has given check to E.B.T.’s “new school”.
5    GRIFFITHS, G (LONDON) 11 Jan 1885 Commonplace Book of Hervey Sloane Manuscript.
6    GRIFFITHS, G 11 Jan 1885 Book on circulation of blood found.
7    GROSE, T.H. (OXFORD) 19 Dec 1896 Thanking E.B.T. for a present, apparently a copy of his paper on American Lot Games.
8    GROSE, T.H. (OXFORD) 11 Dec 1901 Forwarding a letter from H.S. WELLCOME dated 9 Dec 1901, who in turn has sent a parcel containing a Dervish skull, picked up near the battlefield of OBDURMAN.
9    GRUEBER, H.A. (LONDON) 10 June 1889 Sending two foolscap sheets of description of the electro-types bearing Christian symbols.
10    GRUENWEDEL, A. 29 Dec 1896 Discussing his common interest with E.B.T. in Lot Games.


1    HALE, A. (PERAK, MALAYSIA) 11 May 1885 (3) HALE’s collection of SAKI objects is to be sent to England for display in the 1886 Exhibition of Colonial productions. E.B.T. nay have them after the Exhibition if he wishes, for the Pitt Rivers collection.

A list of these objects. A remarkable primitive engineering achievement. Malay games.
2    HALE, A (PERAK) 6 April 1886 Discussion of the possibility of buying HALE’s collection. Games, and stone implements. 8 games kept in separate envelope.
     HALE, Horatio (See separate list below)
3    HALL, R.H. (Hudson’s Bay Company, BRITISH COLUMBIA) 18 May 1899 Offering E.B.T. a Totem Pole, with details of price and transport costs. H.B. (Henry Balfour?) questions this offer in a pencil note.
4    HALL, R.H. (BRITISH COLUMBIA) 15 Nov 1900 The totem pole has at last been shipped. Details of the method of erection of a similar pole in SEATTLE. Attached are:- a. An account for 154 dollars. b. Bill drawn on the bank of MONTREAL for that sum. c. A letter from the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, London saying that arrival of the package cannot be traced. d. A copy (or draft) of a letter from E.B.T. to C.P.R.C., enclosing the Bill of Lading.
5    HALL, R.H. (BRITISH COLUMBIA) 15 Feb 1902 E.B.T. has sent HALL photos of the totem pole “as it stands in the museum”. The Totem pole is still in the P.R.M. Some particulars of the pole.
6    HALL, R.H. 28 Aug 1902 Furthers particulars obtained from an Indian Chief.
7    HANBURY, C. 5 Dec 1896 Thanks for a copy of E.B.T.’s paper on American Lot Games.
     HARRISON, Benjamin. (See below for separate list)
8    HENDERSON, T. (OXFORD) 15 April 1904 Thanking E.B.T. for a letter giving his opinion about some chipped flakes of QUARTZITE which he had acquired on a Trip to E. AFRICA, attached is a photograph on the NAIROBI river.
9    HERBERT, A. (CHRIST CHURCH) 8 Sept 1901 Apologising to E.B.T. for a reference in his views of “ghosts” made in a long letter to “The Times” of 7th September, 1901. (Cutting attached). Also attached is a pencil not in E.B.T.’s writing, apparently referring to the usefulness of stone implements in skinning animals.
10    HERVEY, D.F.A. (LONDON) 19 Nov 1886 Discussion of a paper which D.F.A.H. hopes to prepare for submission to the “Institute”.
11    HOGG, J. (Co. DUBLIN) 12 Mar 1893 Condemnation of Mr. GLASTONE for the Irish Home Rule Bill he is introducing into Parliament. Mention of the “left-handed spade” and sending E.B.T. a “blackthorn”. Details of internal Irish Politics.
12    HOLLOND, J. (DEVON) 9 Jan 1891 Sending E.B.T. two JAIN rosaries from RAJKOT.
13    HOLM, G. (? SWEDEN) 18 Dec 1896 Thanks for copy of E.B.T.’s paper on American Lot Games.
14    HOLMES, W.H. (CHICAGO, USA) 30 Nov 1896 As above.
15    HOOKER, J.S. (SUNNINGDALE) 8 Nov 1886 J.S.H. is trying to get a Jews Harp from DARJEELING for E.B.T. Discussion of kites.
16    HOPE, T.A. (WARWICK) 25 May 1898 Giving a list of pieces of pottery acquired on the FLINDERS PETRIE Expedition to Egypt of 1894-95. Asking E.B.T. for a valuation. Would the University Museum be interested to purchase? Attached is a copy of the same letter addressed to A.J. EVANS, Keeper of the ASHMOLEAN museum.
17    HOWARD, Ms. E. (ESSEX) 16 April ? From a cousin of E.B.T.’s, sending him two potatoes carried in the pocket against rheumatism.
     HOWITT, A. W. (See separate list below)

Letters from HORATIO HALE

1    H. H. 2 Dec 1892 (ONTARIO, CANADA) Writing to E.B.T. in his capacity as President of the Anthropological Institute, to ask for a reply to an earlier letter requesting instructions regarding funds which Mr D. WILSON had in charge at his death; and the future researches of Dr. CHAMBERLAIN and Dr. BOAS.
2    H. H. 3 April 1896 (ONTARIO, CANADA) Replying to an enquiry from E.B.T. about WAMPUM. Genuine antique belts cannot now be found. A small factory now makes the beads for modern ones. Detailed description of four genuine belts in his possession, which he offers to the Museum for £30, together with a rare American historical text of relevance. Account of the historical significance of the belts.
3    H. H. 9 May 1896 (ONTARIO) Accepting E.B.T.’s proposals regarding the acquisition of the belts. Their importance as a historical collection. Sympathy over E.B.T.’s illness. E.B.T.’s meeting with Mr. George GRAY, who had such success in conciliating the MAORIS. Efforts being made by HALE’s Committee to make some arrangement with Dr. BOAS for the production of a Report.
4    H. H. 30 May 1896 (ONTARIO) It has taken longer than expected to compile the historical account which is to accompany the collection being sent to Oxford. The Canadian Committees’ arrangements are going satisfactorily. Dr. BOAS programme of future work.
5    H. H. 28 July 1896 (ONTARIO) Sending the collection of WAMPUM belts, together with a “memoir” of information regarding them; and a string of WAMPUM beads. The possibility of publishing his “memoir”. MAX MULLER has suggested to HALE that his anthropological papers should be re-printed in a volume. His system of anthropology and linguistics, which has been approved by Dr. FRIEDRICH MULLER of VIENNA. Plans for Dr. BOAS’s trip to British Columbia. NOTE: Wampums in the Pitt Rivers Collection.
6    H. H. 3 Aug 1896 (ONTARIO) HALE is glad to learn of E.B.T.’s return to health. E.B.T.’s excellent article in the last issue of “The Nineteenth Century”. Criticism of Robert Brown’s book “Mankind”.
7    H. H. 3 Sept 1896 (ONTARIO) E.B.T.’s remittance in payment for the collection has been received. Sending E.B.T. some more of his papers
8    H. H. 12 Nov 1896 (ONTARIO) (2) (Written in another hand, but signed by HALE) Answering a number of enquiries from E.B.T. about WAMPUM beads. Defence of his views on a point which E.B.T. had queried. Did HIAWATHA invent the woven belt as a credential for his ambassadors of peace?

Letters from B. HARRISON

     (NOTE: B. HARRISON did not usually date his letter, and the date has to be gathered from the envelope attached to a letter. This may or may not be the correct envelope).
1    B. H. 12 Feb 1895 Sending a sketch book of the specimens he has to offer. He can supply skeleton sets of 12 to 14 at 2 guineas per set.
2    B. H. 21 April 1895 Reminding E.B.T. that six weeks ago some sketches of ? Plateau tools.
3    B. H. 23 April 1898 Asking E.B.T. to let him know what type of implements he wants to match. In a P.S. he says that his specimens will fit with E.B.T.’s Tasmanian ones. He has supplied a set to Sir John LUBBOCK.
4    B. H. 24 June 1899 Details of his searches for specimens. Two sketches of his finds.
5    B. H. 20 June 1899 A note (presumably a copy) in E.B.T.’s writing making a deal for the purchase of a set of EOLITHS at 1o guineas.
6    B. H. 3 July 1899 Details of sketches and specimens.
7    B. H. 22 July 1899 An obscure note about a meeting between two persons from whom he gained information; an “Australian miner and a Veterinary Surgeon.
8    B. H. 24 July 1899 Asking for an early reply to an offer he has made to the Museum, as he is involved in dealings with others.
9    B. H. 28 July 1899 Sending “an Evolution set of 10”. Asking for rapid payment because he is in difficulties.
10    B. H. 12 Jan 1900 (2) HARRISON has received some “plates” from E.B.T. Criticism of “our opponents”. He is expecting visits from E.B.T., Prof. R. LANKESTER and others.
11    B. H. 14 Nov 1907 Asking for the return of some of the sketches of the EOLITHS ranging on t PALAIOLTHS which he had sent to E.B.T., after securing Gen. Pitt-Rivers’, “Evolution of Cultures”. A visit from Lord AVEBURY. He has been working on tracing the course of “these old rivers”.
12    B. H. 2 Dec. 1907 Again asking for the return of the sketches. (A note in E.B.T.’s hand writing on the envelope says that they were returned in response to his letter of 14 Nov). A further reference to Gen Pitt-Rivers and remarks by visitors “fresh from his country museum”.
13    B. H. 22 Jan 1899 A paper in HARRISON’s writing apparently giving particulars of two men who have travelled in Australia, and who have provided information about “GUANOS”.
14    An undated note in HARRISON’s writing forwarding two flints about which he had earlier written to E.B.T. A rough sketch on reverse.
15    An undated letter addressed to (Lady) TYLOR offering a set of specimens for 3 guineas. He needs money for domestic reasons, but offers them first to Oxford.
16    An undated note in HARRISON’s writing offering a set of 12 specimens “very persuasive as an evolutionary series” to the museum at a price of 2 guineas.
     Kept with this correspondence are:
17    17 Feb 1899 (Downing Street, S.W.1) A letter to E.B.T. from Mr. F.S. PARRY, evidently Private Secretary for Patronage to the Prime Minister (Mr. BALFOUR) asking for confidential advice about HARRISON’s qualifications, presumably for an honour, or pension.
18    21 Feb 1899 E.B.T. replied to the above on 20 Feb and Mr. PARRY now acknowledged his reply.
     See also: Misc.Ms.11.
1    A. W. H. 22 Oct 1881 (LONDON) A letter from HOWITT’s sister (Mrs. WATTS) enquiring on her brothers behalf about the “Institution Ethnographique” of Paris. He has not yet succeeded in getting a particular specimen for E.B.T.
2    A. W. H. 21 Nov 1881 (SALE, VICTORIA) HOWITT is writing at FISON’s suggestion to send a selection from the material he has on the intersexual customs of the Aborigines, to supplement the FISON/HOWITT paper entitled “From Mother right to Father right”. He has not yet bee able to get a TUNDUN for E.B.T., but offers whatever help he can give. The material attached is in 9 pages.
3    A. W. H. 4 Jan 1882 (SALE) Thanking E.B.T. for having sent him a note on the Ancient Mysteries. It may not be possible to establish any connection between Greek Mysteries, and those of savages. He is planning to organise a Ceremony of Initiation which may cast light. Details of fire-making apparatus, shields and message sticks.
4    A. W. H. 5 Jan 1882 (LONDON) Another note from Mrs. WATTS covering materials HOWITT has asked her to forward. She had been asked to go through the MS to clarify HOWITT’s handwriting and offers to read proofs if required.
5    A. W. H. 22 June 1882 (SALE) Sending E.B.T. a paper on the Australian Class System. He is continuing to collect specimens.
6    A. W. H. 23 Aug 1882 (2) HOWITT is sending some “fire drills” and now describes the method of use. He will be sending “bull roarers” later. He has nearly completed a paper on “Some Australian Beliefs”.
7    A. W. H. 30 Dec 1882 Sending the paper referred to in No. 7 for the Anthropological Institute. He has several other papers in hand. He is about to send a parcel of specimens. Account of the method of use of a TURNDUN, and a “fire drill”. Mr. PALMER has written an account of the CARPENTARIA tribes to be sent to the Institute.
8    A. W. H. 13 Mar 1883 (2) Details of Mr. PABER and his paper, and E.B.T.’s request for information about message sticks had been passed on to him. Several consignments of specimens have been sent. A reference to funeral offerings. A tribal custom which seems to point to a former condition of promiscuity. To TUNDUM and its use in the Greek Mysteries.
9    A. W. H. 4 June 1883 (SALE) HOWITT is gratified by E.B.T.’s approval of his paper on the Class System. He hopes a visit he has made will clear up much about Initiation Ceremonies. He learned much at a ceremony he attended and gives some particulars. Details of TURNDUN he has sent. Missionaries cannot really get information about secret rites of the tribes.
10    A. W. H. 25 June 1883 (SALE) Details of the specimens being sent to E.B.T. (Bull roarers, Message Sticks, DIERI net). HOWITT raises with E.B.T. the question ”What name are we to apply to the Australian Aborigine? Blackfellow might be the most suitable”. A similar problem arises with the Bull roarer, which has different names in different tribes. A possible paper by Mr. CAMERON who lives in RIVEINU (?). A rough sketch of a mallet used for knocking out teeth.
11    A. W. H. 8 Aug 1883 (SALE) Sending a collection of message sticks, and one message totem. Details are given, with two rough pen and ink sketches.
12    A. W. H. 22 Oct 1883 (SALE) Sending E.B.T. the FISON/HOWITT paper which compares the Attic and Australian tribes. (? The Demme and the Horde). He will send E.B.T. stone tomahawks, if wanted. Another reference to Mr. CAMERON’s paper.
13    A. W. H. 21 Feb 1884 (SALE) HOWITT has attended an Initiation Ceremony, and notes a number of details. Rules for fair division of food and carefully taught to youths who may have been in contact with whites, and hence misguided.
14    A. W. H. 14 April 1884 (SALE) Sending two TURNDUN’s with a detailed description. Also a GULE-WIL, one of the things used to bewitch an enemy. Explanation of the word. HOWITT is preparing a paper on Australian Totems. Mention of Mr. CAMERON’s and Mr PALMER’s papers.
15    A. W. H. 21 Mar 1885 (SALE) HOWITT has been told of his election as a Corresponding Member of the Institute and expresses his gratitude. He reports that FISON is better, but still unable to do ethnographic work.
16    A. W. H. 21 Feb 1888 (SALE) Sending a paper on Message Sticks, and two Sticks named in it. Details of marriage customs among the KUMAI. Expiatory fights. He has a paper on the DIERI tribe in hand. FISON is now much better.
17    A. W. H. 20 Apr 1888 Thanking E.B.T. for having read the paper on Australian Systems at the Institute. The DIERI paper is almost completed. Problems of descent through the mother of father. He has evidence of the existence of group marriage over an extensive area. He is preparing a paper defending himself against CURR’s criticisms. FISON is starting on their joint work again.
18    A. W. H. 15 May 1888 (SALE) Further discussion of the relations between a man and his wife’s peoples. Details of the “ball play”. Attached is a paper quoting extracts from information about marriage customs supplied by various correspondents. Also attached is a copy from the GIPPSLAND MERCURY of 31 Jan 1884 giving the details of an Initiation Ceremony attended by HOWITT.
19    A. W. H. 31 May 1888 (SALE) (2) Sending two further pieces of information about marriage customs, supplied by correspondent.
20    A. W. H. 20 May 1888 Sending three photographs taken in the Australian Alps region: 1. on the LATROBE River. 2. the THIMBLE ROCK at HICKEY’S creek. 3. on the UPPER WELLINGTON River. Also enclosed are two sheets of information about marriage customs, and the “ball play”.
21    A. W. H. 21 Sept 1888 (SALE) HOWITT is taking steps to affirm his views about descent from the mother and the father, contrary to the views of CURR and FRAZER, and GASON. He quotes further information received from his correspondents. More news of the DIERI paper he is working on; and of FISON’s improved health.
22    A. W. H. 26 Sept 1888 (SALE) Writing further to No.21 above to ask E.B.T. to communicate the results of his enquiries about descent among the DIERI to the Anthropological Institute.
23    A. W. H. 28 Jan 1889 (SALE) Sending the DIERI paper. He has been making enquiries about getting FISON established in a “lectureship” at the University. He has no more information to send about marriage arrangements.
24    A. W. H. 2 May 1890 (MELBOURNE) HOWITT has been appointed Secretary for Mines, and writes on Departmental paper. His time is more than fully occupied and anthropological work has had to be given up. He will go on trying to get information for E.B.T. particularly on the “Tasmanian” questions.
25    A. W. H. 1 Sept 1890 (MELBOURNE) He has managed to get very little information about Tasmanian stone implements, but will keep trying. FISON has been very ill again. HOWITT is still overwhelmed with Departmental work.
26    A. W. H. 1 Dec 1890 (MELBOURNE) Still no success about stone implements. He has read ROTH’s book which E.B.T. sent him: and he has also read and agrees with E.B.T.’s paper on ASSYRIAN Winged figures. His pressure of Departmental work and plans for a holiday in the Bush. FISON is still ill.
27    A. W. H. 30 Mar 1894 (MELBOURNE) He is trying to obtain information as an enquiry from E.B.T. on “BAIAMI”. FISON has been caught in the effects of the financial crash when the “BOOMBUBBLE” burst. “There is a complete halt of all commercial progress”. The general economic slump.
28    A. W. H. 5 May 1894 (MELBOURNE) Details of his efforts to get information about “BAIAMI”. General pleasure at the invitation to FISON.
29    A. W. H. 22 Jul 1894 (MELBOURNE) (2) Discussion of “BAIAMI”, and criticism of RIDLEY’s views. Details of the verb “BAIA”.
30    A. W. H. 29 Sept 1894 (MELBOURNE) HOWITT is glad to hear how successful FISON has been in England. Mr ANDREW LANG is “off the track altogether” on a point to do with the “Davenport Brothers business”.
31    A. W. H. 18 Jun 1894 (MELBOURNE) HOWITT has become Commissioner of Audit, which he described as “the top of the tree”. Nevertheless, FISON and he are working on re-writing their book. They will have to set matters right in respect of a number of those of different views, including (the late) CURR, VESTERMARCK, MATTHEW and FRAZER. Some information about Bull roarers. FISON’s poor health and financial anxieties. SPENCER is doing splendid work in Anthropology.
32    A. W. H. 12 Jun 1897 (MELBOURNE) HOWITT has not been able to do anything for E.B.T. about stone implements. His correspondents have been swallowed up in the Mining Boom, and the mining men have no interest in anything but gold. SPENCER is doing splendid work; “he had a unique chance, and he took it…” FISON is not at all well. HOWITT is preparing a book on the Folklore of the tribes of South Eastern Australia, and asks E.B.T. whether it would be better to publish in England or Australia.
33    A. W. H. 6 July 1899 (MELBOURNE) Replying to two of E.B.T.’s letters. Criticism of D.E. ROUGEMONT. No one in Australia believes in his adventures. They are “fiction”. He is writing more about the DIERI tribe and has nearly completed a rough draft of his “Tribal and Social Organisation etc”.
34    A. W. H. 4 Sept 1899 Providing information about DIERI beliefs in response to an enquiry from E.B.T. GASON has been in error in some of his statements. The real meaning of the word “MURA MURA”. Deluge Legends. HOWITT has found a willing and competent correspondent in the DIERI country.
35    A. W. H. 7 Sept 1890 (MELBOURNE) News that SPENCER and GILLEN are planning another expedition. The University has granted SPENCER 12 months leave. Information about BAIMI. He has pointed out in writing to ANDREW LANG that there is no such thing in the minds of the Australian native as an omnipresent and omnipotent deity. He is planning to retire from public services and finish his book.
     Kept with HOWITT’s letters to E.B.T. are three additional papers:
36    A typed letter (9 pp) from HOWITT probably to ANDREW LANG, dated 15 Aug 1899. This is almost certainly the letter to LANG referred to in No. 35 above.
37    A paper (apparently not in E.B.T.’s writing) headed “Notes and labels on bull-roarers”, containing pen and ink sketches of bull-roarers, numbered and with references to the dates of HOWITT’s letters in which they are mentioned. This was probably prepared for the use of the Museum. On the reverse is a suggested label for this collection, in E.B.T.’s writing.
38    Three pages of rough notes in E.B.T.’s writing. Two pages (incomplete) appear to be a draft of a book review. The third is rough notes on certain items in the Museum.


1    IM THURN, Sir E. (British GUIANA) 2 Mar 1889 He is about to leave on a trip towards the ORINOCO. Asks for details of E.B.T.’s writings on games. Discusses the definition of “games”. Would “recreations” be a better term? The WASIKKI-SIKKI and other local objects.
2    ITO, Y (LONDON) 25 Feb 1880 (2 sheets) He is unable to supply information about the game “HON. SEOROKA”. The DAIMO family may be able to help. Offers to show E.B.T. the game “GO”.
3    ITO, Y 15 Mar 1880 (2 sheets) Forwarding an account (attached in 3 sheets) of the game “HON. SUGORUKA”.


1    JAGOR, F. (BERLIN) 29 May 1883 (2 sheets) Contains variety of information about games and toys, particularly marbles.
2    JERVIS-SMITH, F. (DARJEELING, INDIA) 29 Mar 1904 Writing from the Himalayas to give information about the Tiktan of RANEE GUTTE. He is trying to secure specimens for E.B.T.
3    JOLLY, T. (WUERZBERG) 24 Jun 1878 (2 sheets) Information about ancient Indian games.


1    KEANE, A.H. (LONDON) 14 Nov 1886 Acknowledging E.B.T.’s papers on American Lot Games. Is sceptical about the theory of transfer from Asia to America.
2    KERR, J. GRAHAM (CAMBRIDGE) 8 May 1895 (2 sheets) Discussing marriage among the TOBA TRIBE. Also strings of RHEEA feathers. Offer E.B.T. his general notes about the TOBAS.
3    KERR, J. GRAHAM (CAMBRIDGE) 14 May 1895 Is sending his M.S.S. notes on the TOBAS. Trying to arrange to get useful specimens for E.B.T.
4    KNOWLES, N.J. 18 Dec 1898 Thanking E.B.T. for sending him a paper. Making a comparison between TASMANIAN and IRISH Stone Age specimens. Making a presentation to the PITT RIVERS Collection, and asking for certain items in return.
Box 13 – Correspondence L-R (including Lang)

1    LANE FOX, A, Major General (LONDON) 29 May 1879? Problems connected with the Secretaryship and staffing of the “Society” (NOTE: presumably the Royal Anthropological Society). A.L.F. uses an acid turn of phrase in dealing with the internal politics of the situation. (See also P.11- Pitt Rivers) (See also E3a E.B.T. to EVANS on this situation)
2    LANG, Andrew (See separate list below).
3    LOW, Lady A. 21 Dec 1901 (2 pp) Attempting to get information for E.B.T. about divining rods from the Malay Peninsula, and enclosing a page of a letter from Mr. H. CLIFFORD.
4    LYALL, Sir A.L. (LONDON) 14 Nov 1896 Thanks for, and comments on, E.B.T.’s paper on American Lot Games.
5    LYALL, L.A. (SHANGHAI) 21 Feb 1898 Thanking E.B.T. for a letter and his paper on Lot Games. Sending some specimens of Chinese Kites.
6    LYALL, L.A. 6 May 1899 Again about sending Kites. Also enclosed a charm, which has been placarded on the doors of a village at Chinese New Year (NOTE: this charm has been transferred to the Photographic Section). Also enclosed are a letter concerning Kites from Mr. J.B. RENTIERS of NAGASAKI, dated 20th March 1899: and 6th. A sheet apparently containing a translated extract from a Chinese letter.
7    LYALL, L.A. (HANGCHOW) 10 Mar 1904 Sending E.B.T. a hundred dollars in local currency, and enquiring about the two pictures he has sent. One of these, a painting on rice paper of a funeral company, has been transferred to the Photographic Section.

Correspondence with ANDREW LANG

1-8 Dated letters 1884-1904; 19-24 Letters of unascertained date; 24-29 Miscellaneous documents

1    A. L. 8 Nov 1884 (LONDON). A.L. has seen a collection of Central American goldwork and other objects which are “amazingly Mongolian”. Is the connection with China (YUNNAN) established? If so “the game is up and Asiatic influence is undeniable”. A reference to a letter of A.L.’s in “the Academy”.
2    A. L. 16 Apr 1886 (LONDON) Telling E.B.T. about a book written by “ATKINSON, my new Caledonian cousin”, who claims to have spotted the origin of exogamy. Mention of the taboo between brother and sister. A.L. asks E.B.T. if he is a Home Ruler, “and how much, if any?”
3    A. L. 18 Apr 1894 (LONDON) Thanking E.B.T. for “TASMANIA”, A.L. has just come from “a set of second sighted Celts”. Attached is a drawing of CONCHODERMA AURITUM.
4    A. L. 10 Oct 1898 (LONDON) (2 sheets) Discussion of an extract from “The Month” which A.L. describes as a “Papist rag”. Nobody is willing to notice (review) the book mentioned in the extract, which is apparently work by A.L. of a review by “a fellow called Robertson”, in “The Fortnightly”. Mention of other works, and criticism of F. BOAS’s report on British Columbia in the Smithsonian Report. A superstition against giving warnings. A.L. asks E.B.T. to let him know if he comes across nay points which do not support his views on “the gods”, and which would help him correct the book.
5    A. L. 22 Oct 1898 (LONDON) Further discussion of “a yarn”, mentioned in the extract from “The Month”. The need for evidence in such matters. The reactions of Catholics. A reference to “part of a Grant Allen propaganda of cocky ignorance”.
6    A. L. 27 Oct 1898 (LONDON) Telling E.B.T. that he has written on “your borrowing theory” for a serious review, and offering to send him proof. A.L. is sure that h has made out his case. Criticism of “Mr. BUCKLEY”. “What a splendid liar”.
7    A. L. 25 Nov 1898 (St ANDREWS) (2 sheets) A.L. is not well and writes in pencil. Discussion of “STRACHEY”. Did he write part of the books assigned to the lover of POCAHONTAS? Discussion of differing views on “Monotheism”, Criticism of “GAIDOZ”. “…the hatred which the human mind feels for inconvenient facts might make the Muses blush.” A.L. is glad E.B.T. is going to loo again at “the borrowing”. “It won’t wash”, BALDWIN SPENCER’s account of “the immutable conservation of the rites”. Medicine men and their “natural enemies”- the missionaries. A discovery of CHURINGAS in Scotland. A.L. is sure some of them are genuine, but the antiquaries are sceptical.
8    A. L. 4 Dec 1898 (St ANDREWS) A.L.’s article referred to in No. 6 has not been published. Discussion of the meaning of Australian aboriginal words. A mediaeval murder and execution, and modern reaction to a dream about it. “It sounds too good to be true”.
9    A. L. 6 Dec 1898 (St ANDREWS) (2 sheets) A.L. would like to write a serious study of Australian creeds. Mrs LANGLOT PARKER, whose book he admires, has changed sides from SPENCER’s views to A.L.’s own. Reference to a paper by “MANNING”. Further references to “STRACHEY”, and the Scottish CHURINGAS.
10    A. L. 18 Jan 1899 (St ANDREWS) Offering E.B.T. a copy of GURRE KAMILAROI, Sydney, 1856. References to “a fine natural liar”.
11    A. L. 20 Jan 1899 (St ANDREWS) Further information about “STRACHEY” and his manuscript, written in 1611.
12    A. L. 5 Feb 1901 (St ANDREWS) Criticism of FRAZER and “The Golden Brough”. The anecdote about Babylonian criminals being given the run of the Royal Harem before execution. A.L. describes this as a “Gentleman’s Story” only to be told to the right people.
13    A. L. 19 Oct (?) (LONDON) A.L. has received from “a German” missionary notes (dated 1901) on ARUNTA religion. This “does not suit SPENCER and GILLEN”.
14    A. L. 28 Oct 1903 (LONDON) A.L. has sent “the original German” to SPENCER in Melbourne. Obscure reference to SPENCER and GILLEN, and HOWITT, and their work in Australia.
15    A. L. 2 Nov 1903 Obscure references to the work of STREHLOW in Australia, and comments of others on it.
16    A. L. 13 Jan (?) 1884 (St ANDREWS) Further references to STREHLOW and his work. “A long tirade” has come from SPENCER against STREHLOW. A.L. suggests that STREHLOW’s views may upset some of SPENCER and GILLEN’s conclusions. HOWITT has reconted his views on “great beings”. “Temper and bias” has set in. Criticism of HOWITT and GILLEN.
17    A. L. 23 Oct 1904 (OXFORD) Returning some books (or papers) to E.B.T.
18    A. L. 8 Nov 1904 (LONDON) “BROWNING” reference to (the Poet) and events at séances conducted by spiritualist medium HOME. The alleged exposure of HOME as a fraud.
19    A. L. 6 Jan (?)1884 or 85 (LONDON) A.L. asks for E.B.T.’s advice on books to be read about the “Gods” of the Australian as far as they have any. Comments on certain writers. Coincidence between an Australian and an ALGOQUIN myth. Deaths in both the TLYOR and LANG families.
20    A. L. 11 Jan (?) (LONDON) References to a “parable”, to totemism, and the CUPID and PSYCHE fable.
21    A. L. “Tuesday” (?) (LONDON) A.L. believes he has scored a point over Herbert Spencer, on the question of the origin of “nobility”.
22    A. L. 6 Oct (?) (LONDON) References to a visit to GLENCOE, a second-sighted man. Criticism of ROUGEMONT and his magazine articles.
23    A. L. 12 Jan (?) (St. ANDREWS) (2 sheets) Cryptic references to Frazer and “The Golden Bough”. Criticism of Frazer for suppressing inconvenient evidence.
24    A. L. 6 Nov (?) (LONDON) A.L. reports that CHURINGAS have been found near the CLYDE. He has been reading SPENCER’s proof sheets.
25    Duplicate proof of “A Reply” by A.L. to Mr. John., M. Robertson’s critique of his book “The Making of Religion”.
26    September 1898. Offprint of Mr. G. TYRRELL’s review of A.L.’s “The Making of Religion”.
27    Two sheets in A.L.’s handwriting, head “Baby Making”, dealing with the ARANDA (ARUNTA)
28    ?1903. Cutting (two sheets) from Longman’s Magazine of a review by A.L. of Mr. E. Chambers’ book “The Medieval Stage”. The relevance appears to be to E.B.T.’s work on Games.
29    Handwritten document, in highly Germanised English referring to two letters sent by ? A.L. References are made to the work of SPENCER and of SEIBERT, who is described as “certainly no Spencerian”, in connection with the ARUNTA. This document appears to be a copy, but is not in A.L.’s handwriting.


1    MACMILLAN, G.A. (LONDON) 20 Jan 1898 Discussions about the forthcoming publication by MACMILLAN and Co., of BALDWIN SPENCER’s book. Business arrangements are in the hands of J.G. FRAZER. Will E.B.T. help in revising the proofs?
2    MACMILLAN, G.A. (LONDON) 8 Mar 1898 Replying to a letter from E.B.T. in which certain doubts have been expressed. E.B.T. is told that he need have no anxiety about FRAZER modifying SPENCER’s text to suit his own views on Totemism.
3    MACMILLAN, G.A. (LONDON) 25 April 1898 Further complications about the proof-reading etc of SPENCER’s book. A hint of tensions between E.B.T. and FRAZER.
4    MACMILLAN, G.A. (LONDON) 29 April 1898 MACMILLAN hopes that he may assume from E.B.T.’s silence that he is willing to read the proofs, and is sending the first batch. SPENCER, FRAZER and E.B.T. are all there to receive duplicate sets of proofs.
     MAN E.H. See separate list below.
5    MENNELL, F.P. (BULAWAYO) 25 Nov 1904 Discussion of the MASHUKULUMBWE headdress worn by tribesmen in NORTHERN RHODESIA. Enclosed is a photograph. (NOTE: photograph now transferred to Photographic Section B7.14.11)
6    MERCER, E. 27 Nov 1903 (postmark) An envelope on which “E MERCER: Send paintings of rain gods” is written in E.B.T.’s hand, contains no letter, in it only a cutting from the New York Herald, 11 Oct 1903, which describes these paintings.
7    MOGGRIDGE, L.T. (BLANTYRE, British Central Africa) 3 June 1903 Explaining delay in sending specimens asked for by E.B.T. Some are now being sent. Correction of a mistake he had made in giving information about tribal names.
8    MOIR, J.P. (HOBART, Tasmania) 7 Nov 1898 Thanking E.B.T. for a letter, and is sending some specimens of Tasmanian stone implements. Attached is a cutting from the “Mercury” of Tasmania and a sheet of pen and ink drawing of implements.
9    MOIR, J.P. (HOBART, Tasmania) 3 Sept 1905 Acknowledging a letter from E.B.T. Sending more specimens.
10    MOONEY, J. (WASHINGTON D.C.) 11 April 1898 Acknowledging a note and book received by E.B.T. Details of work undertaken in Mexico and Texas.
11    MOONEY, J. (WASHINGTON D.C.) 20 Aug 1903 (3 sheets) Discussion of the “COUVADE”, particularly in Ireland. Enclosed is a cutting from the Washington Post of 2 Aug. 1903, describing the writers visit to the sun dance of the CHEYENNE tribe.
12    MOORE, C.B. (BEAUFORT, S.CAROLINA, U.S.A.) 6 Feb 1898 References to Lot Games, and work the writer is doing in S. Carolina, and has done in Florida and Georgia.
13    MORSE, E.L. 30 Jan 1888 Sending a sketch of an African musical instrument in the Ethnological Museum, LEYDEN.
14    MORTILLET, G. De (PARIS) Dec 1886 A card acknowledging receipt of E.B.T.’s “American Lot Games”.
15    MULLER, F. Max (OXFORD) 3 June 1879 Offering “the letter from DEMARARA” to the A.S. (Anthropological Society?) Critical reference to the linguistic views of CAMPBELL.
16    MYRES, J.L. 15 Sept 1902 The writer is in BELFAST for a meeting (presumably of the British Association). A reminder about a note about “the totem-post”, intended for “MAN”.
17    MORDIE-HEDDLER 26 Nov 1886 (2 sheets) This letter concerned with “wind-knots” is addressed to “J.L. STRACHAN-DAVIDSON, BALLIOL COLLEGE, OXFORD”, E.B.T. has noted on the envelope, “Wind-knots”.
     Correspondence with E.H. MAN, who collected for the Pitt Rivers Museum in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
1    E.H.M to Cha. Robertson, Anatomical Department, Oxford 6 June 1881 Re: KAREAU figure sent to the South Kensington Museum and suggested caption.
2    A.F. MAN to EBT (SURBITION) 30 Dec 1885 E.H.M. willing to do more collecting.
3    H. MOSELEY to E.B.T. (OXFORD) 2 Jan 1886 Problems re: expansion of Andaman collections and museum space.
4-5    E.B.T. to A. F. MAN 2 Jan 1886 12 Feb 1886 Drafts of two letters cautiously accepting the offer of further collecting.
6    E.H.M to E.B.T (NANCOWRY) 27 Oct 1886 Dispatch of his collection and photographs. Monograph on Nicobars Details. 4pp.
7    E.H.M to E.B.T. (NANCOWRY) 26 June 1887 Collecting for Vienna and British Museum.
8    E.H.M. to E.B.T. (PORT BLAIR) 6 March 1889 Sending material found in kitchen midden near Port Blair.
9    E.H.M. to E.B.T. (SURBITION) 2 July 1889 Andaman language and connections with India. Religious beliefs.
10    M.V. Portman to E.B.T. 24 Jan 1899 Comment on Man’s work. This was glued in the front of M.V.P.’s book.


1    NANJIO, B. 19 June 1883 (3 sheets) A paper (apparently without covering letter) explaining certain figures of toys appearing in a book. Attached is a pencil note in German, evidently dealing with the same figures.
2    NANJIO, B (OXFORD) 29 June 1883 Explaining a group of figures (presumably that referred to in No. 1 above) is dealt with in STEBOLD’s “PANTHENON VON JAPAN”.
3    NANJIO, B. 4 Dec 1883 B.N. has asked a friend to send him some balls and poles used in the game on horseback E.B.T. has spoken of.
4    NANJIO, B. 15 Feb 1884 Providing information about the Goddess SARAVASTI and her role in Buddhist beliefs.
5    NANJIO, B. 16 Mar 1884 B.N. has to return to JAPAN. More about the implements referred to in No. 3 above. Thanks E.B.T. for his kindness.
6    NANJIO, B. (TOKIO) 6 Nov 1884 The implements have been sent to Oxford.
7    NANJIO, B. 22 April 1885 Enquiring whether the implements have been received. Details of cost.
     Kept with the NANJIO papers is:
8    DIKINS, J.V. (LONDON) 6 Feb. 1884 Giving E.B.T. advice on where to study Japanese Buddhism. There is a reference to B. NANJIO’s “texts and catalogues which you have at Oxford”.


1    PADSHAW, B.J. (PARIS) 25 Jan 1898 (3 sheets) E.B.T. has been asking for information about “CHINVAD-PUL”, and is referred to Dr. WEST. Gives information about “COUVADE” in various parts of INDIA. Attached is a letter from Dr. B.J. NAIK of KARACHI giving further information.
2    PAICE, B. June 1879 Recommending E.B.T. to trace the connection of billiards with “PALL MALL”.
3    PARISH, C. 1 July 1886 Sending E.B.T. a cutting about (?) “BURMESE CHESS”.
4    PARRY, F. (LONDON) 18 July 1899 Complaining that though his work on ancient American symbolism had been well received in the U.S.A. and France, it had been neglected in England, particularly by “your society in Hanover Square”. (Presumably the Anthropological Society).
5    PARRY, F. (LONDON) 29 July 1899 E.B.T. has agreed to an examination of F.P.’s “little book”. He now sends further details elucidating his work.
6    PARRY, F. (LONDON) 5 Aug 1899 (2 sheets) More justification of his own work, and implied criticism of E.B.T.’s reaction. Attached is a copy of E.B.T.’s guarded letter of 5 Aug 1899.
7    PAYNE, E.J. (WETHERBY) 7 Jan 1897 Asking E.B.T. for a statement of his current views on the connection between the advancements of Asia and America. Have his views changed?
8    PEEK, C.J. (LYME REGIS) 4 Sept 1892 A Mr. W.G. ASTON has offered some Korean materials which C.J.P. will hand to E.B.T. when they meet. Problems of accommodation and membership (presumably of the Anthropological Society?).
9    PETRIE W.M. FLINDERS 2 June 1890? Offering E.B.T. specimens. Would welcome his opinion on changes needed in “Religion and Conscience”.
10    PHELPS, L.A. 5 Dec 1896 Thanks for a copy of “American Lot Games”.
11    PITT RIVERS, A. 7 Aug 1898 (2 sheets) A.P.R. is in ill health. View 5 on the loop coil series. The best way to organise a local anthropological museum. His collection of BENIN bronzes. Tasmanian flints. “So little has been done on bronze age sites in England”.

See also L1 (Lane Fox)


1    RABAN, Gen. H. (TAUNTON) 10 Feb 1878 Regretting his inability to answer E.B.T.’s enquiries about the Indian game “PACHISI”. An anecdote about Sir JOHN MALCOLM playing this game. Attached to this letter is an undated letter addressed to “My Dear Willy” from “Aunt Sophie”, giving her recollections of the game as a child.
2    READ, C.H. (BRITISH MUSEUM, LONDON) 17 Nov 1896 Thanks for the copy of E.B.T.’s paper on American games.
3    REDDING, B.B. (SAN FRANCISCO) 5 Jan 1882 Writes to say that at least one American Indian tribe does practise fly-fishing. A sample of a hook is enclosed. (Hook accessioned in COLLS 1988.16.1. GE 4/88)
4    REVILLE, J. (PARIS) 31 Jan 1893 Apologising for not having replied to E.B.T.’s enquiry about “LA COUVADE”. Attached is a note by M. PAUL MEYER about “AUCASSIN et NICOLETE” of SAINT PELAYE.
5    REVILLE, J. (PARIS) 15 Feb 1893 Views about “LA COUVADE” and its practise in the PRYENEES region.
6    RIGUAD, M/s J. 21 Sept Brief note about certain specimens including “one of Dr ROUTH’s Wigs”.
7    RISLEY, H.H. (DARJEELING, INDIA) 23 July 1886 Sending E.B.T. a copy of his article on “Primitive Marriage in BENGAL”.
8    ROLFE, E.N. (KING’S LYNN) 12 Aug 1888 E.N.R. has sent E.B.T. some brass horse ornaments.
9    ROLLESTON 22 Mar 1881 Apparently a sheet from R’s diary of a visit to the South of France, including a visit with E.B.T. to see a prehistoric “jawbone” dug up near NICE. Two photos of the jawbone are attached
10    ROTH, H.L. (HALIFAX) 16 Sept 1906 H.L.R. is looking forward to the appearance of E.B.T.’s new book. Criticism of GREGORY’s “Dead Heart of Australia”. H.L.R. cannot face the expense of bringing out a third edition of his book on Aborigines of Tasmania.
Box 13A– Correspondence S-Y and Miscellaneous


1    SAYCE, A.M. (QUEEN’S COLLEGE, OXFORD) 2 May 1879 (2 sheets) Details of an AKKADIAN numbered tablet. A sheet of explanatory figures is attached.
2    Short, W.M. (LONDON) 14 Dec 1896 W.M.S. was Mr BALFOUR’s Private Secretary and writes from 10 Downing Street to thank E.B.T. for a copy of his paper on American Lot Games.
3    SKEAT, W.W. (CAMBRIDGE) 26 Jan 1899 Enquiring about the possibility of a grant from the Oxford University Museum in support of the expedition to MALAYA which he is accompanying. A contribution of £50 would satisfy him.
4    SKEAT, W.W. (CAMBRIDGE) 29 Jan 1899 More about the expedition to MALAYA. Warning E.B.T. that specimens obtained must come to Cambridge in the first instance. A copy of E.B.T.’s reply dated 1 Feb. 1899 is attached advising that the money will be found if conditions are agreed.
5    SKEAT, W.W. (CAMBRIDGE) 6 Feb 1899 Writing to say that shortage of time before departure will not allow him to go ahead with getting formal agreement to the proposed condition. A copy of E.B.T.’s letter of 8 Feb 1899 to the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford is attached. This suggests informal arrangement for a contribution from Oxford, if expenditure eventually exceeds resources. Also attached is a copy of E.B.T.’s letter of 8 Feb 1899 advising W.W.S. of the proposed arrangement, and the Vice-Chancellor’s letter of 9 Feb 1899 approving of the suggestion.
6    SKEAT, W.W. (CAMBRIDGE) 4 Mar 1901 (2 sheets) Sending E.B.T. his notes on the MALAY Divining Rod.
7    SKEAT, W.W. (CAMBRIDGE) 19 Nov 1901 Thanking E.B.T. for a note and his “generosity”. Mention of the MALAY Dancing Spoon, and other objects.
8    SKEAT, W.W. (CAMBRIDGE) 8 Jan 1902 Supporting E.B.T. in his view about the Divining Rod, as against that of “A.L.” (? Andrew LANG), who is described as a Demon’s advocate.
9    SKEAT, W.W. (CAMBRIDGE) 23 Oct 1904 Thanking E.B.T. for having agreed to write an introduction to his book, and suggesting chapters and passages E.B.T. could usefully read with a view to working out parallels.
10    STOPFORD, J.B. (ROCHDALE) 26 June 1886 (3 sheets) Sending E.B.T. a copy of a letter from a friend (R. MARKWICK) about customs of tribes, with reference to the COUVADE.
11    STUART, J.W.R. (NORWORD) 21 May 1901 Expounding his theory of the origin of Totem and Exogamy.
12    SPENCER, Baldwin (MELBOURNE) 23 May 1889 (2 sheets) The need to arrange some help for FISON. The possibility of a lectureship in Anthropology at a Wesleyan College, in Melbourne. Surprising news of appointments at Oxford. “Australia is not a pleasant place to live in…” Monotonous scenery. Excessive work. Unsatisfactory patterns of lecturing and study. A visit from Professor HADDON. (NOTE: for E.B.T.’s letters to B.S refer to envelope F. in Box No. 1 of the Sir Baldwin Spenser papers).
13    SPENCER, Baldwin (MELBOURNE) 15 Mar 1898 Thanking E.B.T. for having contacted Messurs. MACMILLANS about the SPENCER/GRIFFIN book.
14    SPENCER, Baldwin (MELBOURNE) 19 Feb 1899 (3 sheets) References to M.S. by Miss HOWITT and the difficulties in getting it published. J.G. FRAZER’s theory of the Totem, in reference to the Australian tribes. Attached is a copy if a letter dated 4 Mar 1898 from E.B.T. to Mr MACMILLAN of the Publishing House, which raised objections to the “blending” of Spencer’s observational work with FRAZER’s theoretical opinions. E.B.T. maintains FRAZER is not the right person to write the book’s introduction.
15    SPENCER, Baldwin (MELBOURNE) 28 Apr 1899 B.S. has sent for the Pitt River Collection some CHURINGA of the ARUNTA tribe. A white man has been travelling through the centre of Australia, “stealing” the stores of CHURINGA which Spencer and GILLEN has left undoubted. The alarming rapidity of deterioration among the aborigines.
16    SPENCER, Baldwin (MELBOURNE) 5 Sept 1909 (2 sheets) Thanking E.B.T. for help in getting B.S. the opportunity to visit Northern Australia. Financial problems involved in the expedition. Plans for routes to be taken, the use of axes, both chipped, flaked and ground.
17    SPENCER, Baldwin (CENTRAL AUSTRALIA) 7 April 1901 Reporting that the expedition work is on its way North. Useful work has been done with “phonograph” and “cinematograph”.
18    SPENCER, Baldwin (CENTRAL AUSTRALIA) 17 June 1901 Another report while travelling north. Work is at present going on among the KAITISH tribe. Good photographic…
19    SPENCER, Baldwin (MELBOURNE) 10 Aug 1906 (2 sheets) B.S. is glad to hear that E.B.T. is producing a new book. Native views’ on children not being the result of sexual intercourse. Reference to Andrew LANG’s criticism of Spencer/Griffin’s work.
20    SWAN, J.G. (WASHINTON TERRITORY, USA) `13 July 1887 Answering a request (presumably from E.B.T. although this is not stated) for fuller details of his work on Indian carvings and mythological paintings. Attached is a letter dated 28 April 1887 from J.G.S. to Mr J.G. INNES of BRITISH COLUMBIA, giving information about his work, mainly among the HAIDAH tribe.


1    TAUNTON, Major W.E. 22 Sept 1898 Giving some specimens of words from “native dialects or languages of the Australians”. Aboriginal belief in the transmigration of the spirit of the black after death to the white man.
2    TAYLOR, R. 26 Dec 1882 The Indian game SOBHA MAR, and its possible relationship with the English “Nine Men’s Morris.
3    THOMSON, B. 19 Dec 1899 Wishing to borrow from E.B.T. a MS belonging to FISON about the rites of circumcision.
4    THORLEY, G.E. (Warden of WADHAM COLLEGE, OXFORD) 9 Mar 1897 Thanking E.B.T. for a copy of his paper on American Lot Games.
5    TRAIES, Miss E. (SOUTHAMPTON) 15 June 1879 (2 sheets) Enquiring about the possible relationship between the Devonshire game “PATSHAW” and the Indian game “PACHISI”. Enclosed is a photo of two Indians playing (presumably “PACHISI”).
6    TUCKETT, F.F. (BRISTOL) 17 Aug 1891 (F.F.T. was apparently E.B.T.’s brother-in-law). Sending some rough drawing of objects he had seen in Central Park Museum of New York. Also discussing some objects he had seen in Australia.
7    TUCKETT, F.F. (HOBART, TASMANIA) 13 Feb 1895 F.F.T. is on a trip to Australia and New Zealand and reports on various commissions E.B.T. has given him, connected with specimens and archives.
8    TUCKETT, F.F. (BRISTOL) 15 Nov 1896 Expressing appreciation of E.B.T.’s “American Lot Games” paper. Some family news. NOTE: Also kept in this T envelope is a postcard sent to Mr. H. BALFOUR, Curator of the Pitt Rivers Museum by:
9    TYLOR, Lady 18 July 1916 Details of despatch of a box of specimens.
10    TYLOR, Edward Burnett (Oxford) 21 Jan 1885 Letter to F. F. TUCKETT, found in the Museum with 1917.53.480, and transferred to the Tylor Papers in 2003. Discusses N. American game with sticks and various literature references.
11    TYLOR, Edward Burnett (Oxford) 9 Feb 1888 Letter to Sir William MARKBY, discussing potential publishers for a book and the efforts of Mrs (Janet) Ross in acquiring a witchcraft object [1911.32.6]. Purchased June 2011.


1    VINOGRADOFF, P. (MOSCOW) 4 Jan 1892 P.V. has sent E.B.T. a rosary and other items used by (old ritualists”). He is now sending an explanation, and adds some remarks on the way of life of a certain monastic community.
2    VOLKOV, T. (PARIS) 14 Jan 1898 Writes in French to thank E.B.T. for having sent him a copy of his “American Lot Games”, and send him a copy of his review notice in “L’Anthropologie”.


1    WEBER, Prof. A. (BERLIN) 19 May 1879 Giving E.B.T. some references in HARDY, “Manual of Buddhism”. He has not seen Henry LORD’s “DISCOVERY…”
2    WEST, E.M. (WATFORD) 17 Dec 1896 Discussion of E.B.T.’s diagram of the ZOROASTRIAN COSMOS”.
3    WEST, E.M. (WATFORD) 3 Nov 1897 Replying to a letter from E.B.T. A reference to NOLDERE’s translation of the “KARNAMEH”. The stick or stave used in the game of “CHOPIGAN”.
4    WESTERMARK, E. (HELSINGFORS) 28 Dec 1896 Thanking E.B.T. for a copy of his article on The Matriarchal Family System. Comments on STEINMETZ explanation of Revenge.
5    WESTERMARK, E. (TETUAN, MOROCCO) 31 Dec 1898 Thanking E.B.T. for his papers on Totenism. Details of his stay among the ANDJOIRA tribe. Their superstitions.
6    WILLIAMS, R. (BRISTOL) 7 Nov 1902 ADDAMS, S. Information about the origins of the game of Draughts.
7    WILLIAMS, R (BRISTOL) 27 Nov 1902 ADDAMS, S. As above including particulars of a Spanish work.
8    WILLIAMSON, W.L. (TASMANIA) 16 Oct 1894 Sending FLINTS to E.B.T.
9    WILSON, J.S. 19 Feb ? Returning a copy of “MACPHERSON” lent by E.B.T. Its importance for an understanding of the KHOND People in India.
10    WOODWARD, H.B. (LONDON) 10 Dec 1872 Sending E.B.T. two Divining Rods.


1    YULE, Colonel. H. (INDIA OFFICE, LONDON) 5 May 1879 (+ 2 attachments) Forwarding a letter of introduction to the Sanskrit scholar Professor BHANDARKAR (from Mr. FLEET of the Bombay Civil Service), and to KAZEE SAHABADIN and H.M. BIRDWOOD (from Dr. BIRDWOOD of the India Office).
1a    YULE, Colonel H. (Earls Court, London) 13 Dec 1883 Enclosing proofs of his article on Chicane, etc.
2    YULE, Colonel. H. (TUNBRIDGE WELLS) 28 Dec 1883 Colonel JOHNSTON in India is willing to obtain implements and information about Polo as played there for E.B.T.
3    YULE, Colonel. H (LONDON) 8 Jan 1884 Col. JOHNSTON (see above) has a saddle for presentation to E.B.T.
4    YULE, Colonel. H. (LONDON) 28 June 1886 (2 sheets) Information about the CHAUGHAN and other details about POLO as played in PERSIA, and MANIPUR and outer parts of INDIA. Does modern English “CHICKANERY” stem back to CHAUGHAN?
5    YULE, Colonel. H. (LONDON) 19 Aug 1887 Col. MURDOCH SMITH has returned from PERSIA bringing two silver spoons and other material for E.B.T.
6    YULE, Colonel. H. (LONDON) 29 Aug 1887 Sending the spoons and some drawings referred to in 5 above.
     NOTE: Together with the YULE correspondence is a letter from:
8    YVAN, L. (PARIS) 29 April 1891 A Paris antique dealer sending E.B.T. drawings of some material from ANNAM.
9    YVAN, L. (PARIS) 6 May 1891 Further details of materials sent to E.B.T.

Box 14 – Notes and Correspondence re: Australia

1    Correspondence including MS notes (folios 1-67):

Folio 1 - Letter to Henry Balfour from Hemp dated 26 September 1928.

Folios 2, 3 and 4 – Letter from H. L. Oak (Bancroft Library) dated 2 May 1898.

Folio 5 – Letter from C. Reid dated 22 January 1901.

Item 6 – envelope to E. B. Tylor Esq., from Peking.

Folios 7 -16 - E. Satow, letter and notes on Japanese polo, folios 13 and 16 are scale drawings.

Folio 17 letter from E. B. Tylor dated 22 May 1879.

Folios 18 and 19 – 2 letters from Dorothy Tylor to Mr Balfour dated 18 July 1916 and 10 November 1916.

Folios 20 - 25 – Notes from Louis Tylor dated 20 October 1893.

Folios 26 – 62 – Notes from Tylor's nephew on Bushman paintings. Folio 63 – postcard from Somerlenze, Wells dated 28 July 1880.

Folio 64 – letter from Somerlenze, Wells dated 27 July 1880.

Folio 65 – letter dated 29 August 1887 unable to read signature.

Folio 66 – Unable to decipher letter no date either.

Folio 67 – Letter no signature but from Provincial building Wellington dated 9th December 1886.

Manuscript notes (folios 68-140):

Folios 68 – 104 – Notes – On some religious and totemistic conceptions of the Aranda and Loritja in Central Australia, ? Globus 9 May 1907.

Folio 105 – 110 – Extracts from a letter of Mr. C. Strehlow, Missionary of the New Missionary Society of Dittelsan at Hermannsburg, Finke River, South Australia. 20 December 1901 – typewritten.

Folio 111 – North American Indians.

Folios 112 – 114 – Notes entitled Das Pachis, text in English.

Folios 115 – 119 – Looks like a list of drawing captions.

Folio 120 – Extract from Mehr and Mushtari, how Mehi was playing Chaugan Horse Shinty or Polo.

Folio 121 – 122 – List of Burman Rosaries.

Folio 124 – Possibly a caption for Plate V, signed EBT

Folio 125 – Card looks like a picture caption – The Betrothal of the Virgin after the Fresco Loienzo di Viterbo.

Folio 126 – extract from a letter dated 21 May 1890.

Folio 127 – small scrap of paper - Eye charm from Assiout signed S.M.7 1903.

Folio 128 – small scrap of paper – London Amulet, Alexandria, Modern Arabs, not sure on signature Grevill J. Shuler?

Folio 129 - small note – about a ring from E. B. Lynn (not sure on signature).

Folio 130 – scrap of paper looks like Edward Freen as signature.

Folio 131 – scrap of paper – about an amulet found by K. R. Smith.

Folio 132 – extract from Han-to-shi, published in the 18th century.

Folio 133 – From Wa-Kuns no Shishi (Japanese Dictionary).

Folio 134 – From Rui-KinBanashi, published 1790 A.D.

Folio 135 – pencil notes scribbled on both sides of sheet.

Folio 136 – Notes the history of the reign of Ardasheer Badagan on blue paper.

Folio 137 – handwritten Chapter heading ''Writing'' with some illustrations on page.

Folio 138 – looks like doodling and notes all in pencil.

Folio 139 – Captions for illustration – Spoons of the horse of the Mountain Goat- carved.

Folio 140 – pencil jottings

3    Plates, drawings and photographs (141-195) – no descriptions.
4    Folio 196 - Newspaper page – The Globe, Wednesday, September 7, 1887, pp. 5 – 6, Arrow Throwing – letter by J. H. Teague.
5    Folio 197 – Offprint – Notes on Powhatan's Mantle, reprinted from Separat-Abdruck aus: Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographie bd. I. 1888, pp. 215-217 plus colour Plate XX.

Box 15 – Natural Religion (page and galley proofs)

1    Chapter I – History of the Doctrine of Natural Religion pp. 1-18, page proofs 1st revise stamped 19 December 1899.
2    Chapter II – The Common Relgion of Mankind galley proof stamped 7 April 1900, page proofs not date stamp pp. 19-64 (pp. 49-64 date stamped 1 September 1900)
3    More galley and page proofs a mixture of chapters, date stamped 5 July 1904 and 9 September 1899
4    Hand written copy Arts and Crafts, ? newdate stamped on reverse (printed galley proof), 11 July 1900.
5    A further selection of mixed galley and page proofs.

Box 16 – Notes re: Anthropology, 1892

1    Chapter I. Man Ancient and Modern - Ms 1-26, pp. 1-34.
2    Chapter II. Man and Other Animals – ms 1-24, pp. 35-55.
3    Chapter III. Races of Mankind – ms1-47 (44 is missing) pp. 56-102 (only).
4    Chapter VII. One sheet of text, p.176.
5    Chapter VIII. One sheet tracing of a bullock wagon, p. 199 of text.
6    Chapter X. Arts of Life (continued). ms.10-28 and 30-39, pp. 236-259,
7    Chapter XI. Arts of Life (concluded). ms 1-24, pp. 260-278 (only).

Box 17 – Notes on weapons, tools and religion including Charles Harrison on Haida

1    Correspondence 1899 &1900 (also ms 'Land of the Haidas'' by Charles Harrison, folder, table of contents and pp. 1-48). Letter from Charles Harrison dated 24 May 1899 (1 sheet). Letter from Charles Harrison dated 10 May 1900 (2 sheets). Letter from Edward B. Tylor dated 11 June 1899 (1 sheet). Letter from Edward B. Tylor dated 14 December 1899 (1 sheet). Folder – Land of the Haidas, C. Harrison done for Tylor, ms 1-48.
2    Ms. notes relating to: Healing, Medicine and Death pp. 1-11.
3    Ms. notes relating to: The Americas and American Indians pp. 12-27.
4    Ms. notes relating to: Property, Trading, Gifts and Hospitality pp. 28-39.
5    Ms. notes relating to: Animism and Religion pp. 40-66.
6    Ms. notes relating to: Festivals and Seasons, Arts and Sciences pp. 67-80.
7    Ms. notes relating to: Weapons and Tools – Industrial Arts – Representative Art, miscellaneous, etc. pp. 81-95.

Tylor correspondence arranged and listed by Elizabeth Edwards, circa 1989.

Correspondence list prepared for web by Sarah Raine, 2008.

Other boxes checked and listed by Derek Stacey, 2008.



Enquiries:  ms-photo.colls@prm.ox.ac.uk