South and East Africa. 1929. Tour as President of the Anthropology Section of the B.A.A.S. (British Association for the Advancement of Science)

Diaries of Henry BALFOUR (1863-1939), anthropologist and museum curator


South and East Africa, 1929

Notebook I: South & East Africa – 1929 –


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a newspaper clipping from the “Rand Daily Mail”, 2.8.1929, entitled “A RICH FIELD FOR RESEARCH”, mentioning Balfour.]


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a programme for Section H lectures, July 31 to August 4 1929.]


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[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a letter from the British Association of the Advancement of Science, dated 8th October 1928, inviting Balfour to accept Presidency of Section H for the 1929 meeting in South Africa.]


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June, 1929


26th.                             Left Oxford by 12.50 p.m. train for London. Went to Midland Hotel. Dined with Lewis.


27th.                             10.20 a.m. train to Tilbury; went on board the Union-Castle SS. “Llandovery Castle”, lying out in the river. She started a little before 3 p.m. Dropped pilot at Dover. Calm + not much wind. Cold in evening.


28th.                             Off Ushant at about 3 pm. Hazy + calm. Some Maux Shearwaters + Herring-gulls seen.


29th.                             Pitching + rolling, but not badly. First Spanish lighthouse seen about 3 pm. Finisterre abeam about 6 p.m. Too far out for many birds to be seen; but I saw several immature gannets (S. bassana) + some Guillemots. Hazy. Sea roughish while we were in shallow water on the “Continental Shelf”.


30th                              Too far from the coast for birds. Calmer in the deep water. Fine + warmer. Only a few large Petrels seen. Passed the “Llansteffan Castle” homeward bound.


July 1st.                       Very bright with light westerly breeze; calm. A few large Petrels + one Storm Petrel (? Madeiran) seen; also flying-fish, but remarkably little life. No land in sight. Madeira too far to the west to be visible. Very fine + warm all day.


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a photograph of the First Class Smoking Room on the “Grantully Castle”; on the reverse is a photograph of “The East Coast Steamer, “Llandovery Castle” (11,423 Tons).”]


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a booklet containing the list of passengers of the S.S. “Llandovery Castle” sailing from London on 27thJune 1929.]


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July 2nd                       Fine, warm + smooth. The Peak of Tenerife in sight at about 8.30 am., but rarely the whole of it at once. Very few birds – Greater + Mediterranean Shearwaters, and Madeiran Storm-petrels. Hardly any gulls. Several Velellas seen floating. Anchored off Santa Cruz, Tenerife, at about noon. I went ashore with Sidgwick, the Abbé Breuil + Mr. + Mrs. Kelly, + we hired a motor-car + drove to Laguna (the old capital), up-hill all the way. Visited the Cathedral + another church, also the Seminary with its very attractive cloistered courtyard, and the museum. Also saw the famous Dragon-tree, a very peculiar growth of great age. Climbing up the low very thick trunk one seemed to be in a room the outside branches + foliage forming dense walls round a large hollow space. We drove up to the “Forest belt”, where Giant Heaths, up to 20 or more feet in height are a feature. Walking on a mile or so up the hill we had some fine views. Motored back to Laguna, passing many threshing-floors, where tribula (trilho) studded with lava blocks are used for threshing. Then back to Santa Cruz where we visited the museum + its good collection of Guanche relics, etc. Went on board at 5.45 pm. + sailed soon after 6 pm. It was dark soon after. The upper part of the Peak showed black against the sky. Sea oily calm.


3rd                                Of [sic] the Rio de Oro coast, but too far away to see land. Very little life, except Madeiran Storm Petrels following the ship + many Velellas. We picked up the N-E trade-wind.


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July 4th.                       Passed Cape Blanco during the night. No land seen all day. Madeiran Storm-petrels very numerous + Velellas abundant. Large school of dolphins fishing early in the morning. Also saw a Sooty Tern (St. fuliginosa) + two other terns, some bonito + very many flying-fish.


5th                                Very hot + stuffy in cabin during the night. Calm cloudy. A light breeze kept us fairly cool during the day + there was no typical ‘Doldrums’ weather. Dolphins seen occasionally in schools, though flying-fish seemed rather scarce. Storm Petrels still numerous. Saw many Sooty Terns + a Swallow (probably from Cape Verde, which was passed at 1.30 a.m.) was flying around the ship. Velellas much scarcer. Bonitos were jumping, but life generally was scarce. Sea temperature 81°F.


6th                                Fairly cool breeze. Overcast sky + some rain. Saw a large school of dolphins in the morning. No Storm-petrels to be seen. Very few flying-fish. The Southern Cross seen very clearly at night, low down.


7th.                               Good breeze from S-E (trade). No life seen until afternoon, when small flying-fish became very abundant, rising in ‘flocks’ of 500-1000 together. No dolphins or birds. Crossed the Line at 8.30 pm Brilliant starlight night.


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July 8th                        Fine; steady S-E breeze. Flying fish very numerous + rising in dense clouds. This is near their limit of southerly extension during the Southern winter, according to the German statistics, + their great concentration in this latitude is interesting + suggests a greater extension southward. One large school of dolphins seen.


9th.                               Ascension Id. sighted before 7 a.m. we ran through a rain squall before getting there, but it cleared up before we anchored at 8.30 a.m., + the whole island showed up clear. As we approached the island several Red-footed Gannets (S. piscatrix) + a Sooty Tern were seen. After anchoring Frigate-birds (F. aquila), peculiar to Ascension were seen in some numbers, mostly young birds with white heads. Red-footed Gannets, adult + immature, were plentiful (a dimorphic species, some of the adults having dark bodies). Brown Gannets (S. leucogastra) were fishing off George Town. The Sooty Terns had not yet arrived in any numbers. While I was having breakfast I was told that some one from the island was asking for me, + I found the Acting Resident Magistrate (Wilmot) enquiring for me. He gave me a letter from the Governor of St. Helena, + said that he had commandeered to [sic] only car in the island to take me for a run in the island. The landing conditions were excellent, as it was calm. But our Captain would not let anyone go ashore + said that he would only stay one hour. We remained at anchor as a fact, for about three hours! Fergusson, whom I had travelled with last year in the “Madura” also had come on board to see me. Not being able to land, I


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spent the time talking to Wilmot + Fergusson, + watching the birds + fishes (Cavalli + Trigger-fish, the latter locally known as ‘black-fish’, were swarming round the ship). The Cavalli were very numerous + up to 2'-2'6" long. The island is of recent volcanic formation, mostly bare of vegetation, except in the valleys + on the lower slopes. Many small secondary craters are dotted about, the main mountain rising to 2820 ft. On the heights trees have been planted (Eucalyptus, cypresses etc). There are some grass-covered areas + a lot of low-growing acacias. Bananas, guavas etc are grown in valleys. George Town is a small settlement. We raised anchor at 11.30 a.m. After leaving the island I saw many Blue-faced Gannets (S. cyanops) which I had not identified while off George Town; also several Noddies + some Brown Gannets (S. leucogastra). A few flying-fish also seen.


July 10th                      Very fine, with S-E trade wind. Flying-fish abundant during the morning.


11th.                             Flying-fish still to be seen, though not very numerous. Dolphins fishing + a few Sooty Terns. St. Helena was sighted during the morning, looking like a group of islands. We anchored off Jamestown about 3.30 pm. The last flying-fish seen was a few miles before we anchored. Colonel Salier (chief secretary) came on board asking for me, + bringing a letter from the Governor. I collected the Sewards, Dr. Rendle, Brooks + Canon Parker, for whom arrangements were made, + we went ashore in the Governor’s launch. Carriages had been provided + we drove to the old fort, where


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the Governor (Charles Harper) met us. He + I got into his carriage, the others going with Col. Salier. We drove up a very steep road, stopping for the view above “Briars”, where Napoleon stayed for a while; + then on to Napoleon’s tomb in a secluded ravine, + on to ‘Longwood’, where he spent most of his time + where he died. The rooms are bare + there is only his bust in the room in which he died. A hole cut in one of the shutters gave an outlook over the British Camp. We visited Mr. Deason at his house + afterwards went on to the fine, large house built for Napoleon, but never occupied by him. The botanists went with Col. Salier + eventually back to the ship. The Governor insisted upon my staying the night with him at the house which he was temporarily occupying, while “Plantation” (Government House) is being reconstructed after devastation by white ants. I had no gear with me, but I was equipped with necessaries for a night. Harper + I dined alone, Mrs. Harper being at home with the children. Had a very good night.

                                    Birds seen during the day – Tropic-birds (Ph. aetherius) some on the water near Jamestown, others flying around; many Noddies (A. stolidus) + ‘Love-terns’ (Leucanus albus, Cygis alba or crawfordi) were fishing among the moored boats. Love-terns were also flying inland over the houses + up the valley. No other sea-birds. Ashore, especially high up, were many Mynahs, Avadavats, Bishop birds (weaver-finches) with gorgeous orange plumage on neck + fore parts, wonderfully ‘protective’ colouring among the Erythrina blossoms; Java Sparrows (introduced), some Pipit-like birds, + small doves. Vegetation, largely imported, is fine on the W. side of the island.


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Arancarcias, Eucalyptus, Daturas, Budleias, Arum lilies, Bougainvilleas etc. do very well. Phormicum tenax (New Zealand flax) is cultivated + the fibre exported in some quantity. Coffee also does well + small bananas. Scenery very hilly, volcanic, rugged + beautiful.


July 12.                       After breakfast, with local-grown coffee, Harper + I drove to ‘Plantation’ (Government House) + strolled through the grounds; interviewed the huge Mauritian tortoise, said to be over 200 years old + pre-Napoleonic, quite a nice friendly beast. We looked in the house, which is being reconstructed after devastation by white-ants. After a further drive round we returned to Harper’s present house, where I left him + drove down to Jamestown, where the Brit. Assoc. folk were assembling to return on board + did not have to wait. We raised anchor soon after noon + started off in a very smooth sea, with very little wind. Some Noddies, Love Terns + Tropic birds were seen along the coasts. At 4.30 pm I gave a lecture on the natives of S. Africa to the passengers in the third class, + had a very appreciative audience who asked me to come + talk to them again. The wind got up a bit at night + there was rain.


13th.                             At sea. Many Sooty Terns + medium-sized Petrels (dark above + white below).


14th.                             Fine, good breeze (S-E. trade). Petrels numerous. A few silver-grey Petrels (Prionella antarctica or glacialoides),


[---FACING PAGE: Photograph, labelled: “The Governor + the tortoise.”---]


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these being the southern representatives of the Fulmar. I gave a lecture in the Lounge on “Zimbabwe” to a full house. Seemed to be a success. Towards evening I watched for some time a Hump-backed whale splashing vigorously.


July 15th                      Steady, strong S-E. breeze. Cooler. Mollymawks (Diomedea chlororhyncha) fairly abundant, also medium-sized Petrels. Sula capensis, adults + all dark birds of last year; many Prions (Dove-petrels). Later I saw one Wandering Albatros (D. Exulans), many Mollymawks, some all-dark Gannets, a Cape Hen (White-throated Petrel) + other large Petrels.


16th                              Mollymawks, some Wandering Albatrosses, medium petrels, Cape Gannets, Cape Hens + many Prions.


17th                              Very fine day for the last of the outward voyage. The sea had gone down, though the S-E trade still held. Plenty of life. D.Exulans + D. Melanophrys abundant, but not D. chlororhynchus [sic]. Near Dassen Island birds very abundant – great numbers of Cape Gannets were fishing in large groups in characteristic fashion; ‘Cape Hens’ numerous + ‘Cape Pigeons’ (Daption Capense) less so; Prions very abundant; several Great-winged Petrels (Pterodroma macroptera); some Terns resembling St. hirundo. Off Dassen Id. were many groups of Black-footed Penguins (spheniscus demersus) on the water, as well as scattered individuals. A Southern Skua (Megalestris antarctica) very


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like the ‘Bowxie’, followed the ship closely for a long while. A number of seals were seen fishing among the birds. We sighted the coast at about 2 pm. + snow-covered mountains showed up clearly in the background. Table Mountain was visible at about 4 pm. Dassen Id. light abeam at 5.30 pm. A number of Dominican Gulls followed the ship towards sundown. Passing Robben Id. to port, we entered Table Bay + anchored at 7.45 pm. Beautifully clear. Cape Town was all lighted up + with a 2/3 moon. Table Mountain showed up very clearly. A beautiful sight.


July 18th.                     Up at 5 a.m. Still dark. Finished packing. Immigration officers on board + Customs officials. I had to pay £3-5-0 on field-glasses + camera (to be refunded). Some Black-footed Penguins, Dominican Gulls + Cormorants in the harbour. We came into dock + tied up at 8 a.m. Barnard came to meet me. Long delay in getting my luggage ashore + through the Customs. I left it to be sent on by transport + motored with Barnard + the Kellys to the Post Office. Sent wire to E. We dropped the Kellys at a very nice boarding home in Rondebosch + then went on to the Barnards’ house (Shelmerdine, Milner Road, Rondebosch). Table Mountain perfectly clear + in full view from the house. Braunholtz was already a guest of the Barnards.

                                    Later, Barnard, the Kellys, Garfitt, Fleure, Braunholtz + I motored to Fish-hoek. We lunched at a restaurant + went on to Mr. Pears’ house + saw his sons collection of stone implements, zoological specimens etc.


[---FACING PAGE: Two photographs, labelled: “Looking across the plain towards Skildegat rock-shelter, near Fish-hoek. 18 July. (Braunholtz photo)”; “Garfitt / H.B. / Mrs Kelly / Breuil, Kelly, Goodwin, Pears / The party at Fish-hoek. July 18.”---]


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Here we picked up Breuil, Goodwin + young Pears + after motoring a short distance we climbed up the steep hillside, partly over expanses of blown sand, to the Skildegat rock-shelter discovered + excavated by Pears. The shelter stands high above the valley + is in a rocky outcrop at the top of the ridge. Pears found more than one stone-age culture there. Numerous lines, groups of dots + ‘hand-like’ designs in red are on the rock walls + the Abbé was very positive that many of these are Bushman paintings. I felt less sure of them + the finding of some scaled off pieces of the rock with similar ‘designs’ not only on one surface but going right through to the other surface, clinched one’s doubts + proved them to be natural, in spite of their very artificial-looking appearance. A leopard’s den, recently occupied, is just beyond the rock-shelter, with bones scattered in + near it. Returning to the cars, we drove round the new Chapman’s Peak drive + past Hout Bay, a magnificent piece of coast scenery, rather dangerous. The view over Chapman’s Bay to Slang Kop Point (where recently a very large school 103 Pseudorca crassideus came ashore, in the same way as at Dornoch Firth) is especially fine. The entry to Hout Bay is also splendid. Miss Fleming came to dinner with the Barnards.


July 19th—                  Motored into Cape Town in the morning. Sent off letters for English mail. Spent the morning at the Museum + had a talk with Gill, the Director.


[---FACING PAGE: Clipping from “THE GRAPHIC, November 14, 1931” entitled “ON THE FINEST MARINE DRIVE IN THE WORLD” (Chapman’s Peak).]


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After a rapid lunch I went, by invitation, to Parliament House, to see the Lieut. Governor open the session. Quite an interesting ceremony. Both the Lieut. Governor + Princess Alice were present, enthroned, + the speech from the throne was read first in English by the Prince + then in Dutch by the Speaker. Ceremony only lasted a very short time.


July 20th—                  Spent the morning at the Cape Town Museum with Breuil, the Kellys, Braunholtz + others, under Goodwin’s guidance, seeing the stone-age collection + ethnological series. We lunched in the town + then motored with the Hoernlés + Colonel Hardy to the Cape Flats (Maitland-Milnerton area). On the way there Barnard’s car was crashed into by a motor cyclist. The latter was not much hurt, but the cycle was crumpled up. The car was not badly damaged. This event lost us a good deal of time, but we got to Col. Hardy’s site + hunted for stone implements for some hours. There was much spoor of Duikers or other small buck in the sand. I saw some Kitlitz Plovers on a sand-spit. In the evening the Hoernlés came to dinner with the Barnards + the Abbé Breuil, Goodwin, Sir Frank + Lady Dyson and H. Stayt (the blind anthropologist, whom I had examined at Cambridge for his Tripos) + his wife came round after dinner. Stayt brought some Wemba divining bowls to show us.


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a newspaper clipping of a photograph of “The Governor-General and Princess Alice leaving the Senate yesterday after opening Parliament.]


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a newspaper clipping from the “Rand Daily Mail – 3.8.1929” about “M. L’ABBE H. P. BREUIL”.]


[---FACING PAGE: Newspaper clipping of “A fine portrait of the Governor-General and Princess Alice taken before the opening of Parliament ceremony on Friday.”; a photograph, labelled: “Mr + Mrs Harper Kelly, Miss Murray, Breuil, Col. Hardy, Garfitt / Flint-hunting on the Cape Flats, Maitland, Milnerton area. / July 20. (Braunholtz phot.)---]


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July 21st—                  Several of us (the Barnards, the Kellys, Breuil, Braunholtz, Carline, Goodwin, Fleure, Mrs. Hoernlé, Miss Fleming + I motored to Stellenbosch in three cars. We hunted over some of the factory sites of ‘Stellenbosch’ implements + collected many unfinished examples of Table-Mountain sandstone, along terrace gravels of the Erste River. We had first examined Peringuey’s type site along a railway cutting. We all picnicked on one of the sites. I had to get back early as I was dining at Government House + had to get dressed. Mrs. Barnard drove me to Govnt. House. At dinner I sat between Miss Blackie, a lady-in-waiting, + Mrs. Dixon, whom I had met in Australia in 1914. Very jolly dinner party. The Sewards, Dixons, the Dysons, the Bargers, Watson, Bartlett + others were there. H-E. was very genial + affable + I had a long talk with him. I also had a long + amusing talk with Princess Alice, who was very charming. I already met two of the A.D.C.s (Captain Edmonstone + Percy) + the third, Capt. Smith was also very friendly. They provided a Govnt. House car to take me back to Rondebosch. I had a badly inflamed eye + was rather unpresentable but I managed to enjoy the evening.


22nd—                         Dr. van Heerden came round with her car (+ Mrs. Hoernlé, Miss Murray + Carline) at 7.30 a.m., after telephoning to say that she would be round


                                    [pasted in the margin of this page is a newspaper clipping of a photograph of “H.R.H. Princess Alice”.]


[Inserted into the pages of the diary are two photographs, with labels on the back: “Lunch at site near Stellenbosch” with names of people listed from left to right.]


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a card from the Controller of the Household of the Governor General and Princess Alice inviting Balfour to dinner on Sunday July 21st 1929.]


[---FACING PAGE: Photograph, labelled: “Stellenbosch, 21.7.’29 Braunholtz phot.”---]


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in a quarter of an hour – I was in bed at the time of the message + had to dress in a hurry + snatch a mouthful of breakfast. We motored via Somerset West + Sir Lowrie’s Pass to Villiersdorp (about 75 miles). Scenery very fine. We hunted over some ‘Stellenbosch’ industry sites with success. Had hard-boiled eggs + coffee at Villiersdorp. Motored back the same way, with grand views over Gordon Bay. We got back soon after 3 p.m. I changed quickly + went with the Barnards + Braunholtz to the City Hall for the opening ceremony of the Brit. Assoc. meeting. H.E., the Lieut. Governor welcomed the guests. Hofmeyer gave his presidential address to the S. African Assoc. + was eloquent + good. Dr. Broome received the South African medal for research. The Sultan of Zanzibar attended the ceremony.

                                    After dinner the Barnards, Braunholtz + I went round to Dr. van Heerden’s house + spent the evening there. She gave me a number of stone implements.


July 23rd                      The session opened with a Section H. committee meeting at the University at 8.45 a.m., followed by a meeting of the Section. Fleure led off with a good paper. Prof. Dreunan exhibited some S. African skulls. Carline read a paper of certain African loom-types, Miss Murray drew a full house for her paper on “Witchcults”, + Prof. Eiselen read one on fire-making + fire-cults in S.W. Africa.


[---FACING PAGE: Newspaper clipping of a photograph of “Mr. J. H. Hofmeyr, president of the South African Association for the Advancement of Science.”---]


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Barnard, Braunholtz + I lunched in Cape Town + then motored back to Rondebosch with Mrs. Barnard. In the evening I cut the reception at the “Owl Club” + went to see the Sneyds (at 16 Breda Court Flats) + found them + their daughter, Betty, in. I spent the evening with them. Very nice to see them again. Going back, I took a wrong bus, which landed me a couple of miles from Milner Road. It was quite dark + I met no one to ask the way + I had to trust to instinct to find my way to Barnard’s house. I arrived there at midnight + luckily found Braunholtz up (the Barnards were out + not returning till the small hours).


July 24th—                  Section H Committee at 8.45 am. In the Section meeting the Abbé Breuil read a paper on the Eastern Palaeolithic Art in Spain to a full house. Afterwards we adjourned to the Rondebosch Cinemas to hear Sayce on Fire-walking ceremonies in Natal, with cinema films. I went to lunch with the University Club at the Opera House Restaurant, + had to make a short speech, as did some others of the guests. I went out to Kenilworth by train, got caught in a heavy rainstorm + arrived wet at Col. Hardy’s house in Stains Avenue. He showed me his collection of stone implements, which is most interesting, + gave me a number of specimens. Braunholtz was already there + we came back to Milner Road in a car. Spent the evening packing. Packed box of specimens for sending off to England. Heavy wind blowing + raining.


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a booklet containing the programme of “AT HOME” in honour of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held at the University of Cape Town on 23rd July 1929.]


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July 25                        Committee at 8.45 am. I did not take the chair in Section H. as I had several things to see to (tickets + luggage transport), + I had to attend a joint meeting of Sections H and F for discussion on Economic competition between Whites + the Backward Peoples. I had to speak as president of Section H. I lunched with Sir Caruthers Beattie, Principal of the University + sat next to him. There were many of the Brit. Assoc. members + others there. I had met Beattie before, in 1910, when he was a professor in the University. I drew £25 from the Standard Bank. Transfered my return passage in the “Saxon” to the “Durham Castle” from Dar-es-Salam. Braunholtz + I went with Barnard to a Commissioner of Oaths + we made affidavits as to details of the car v. motor-cycle accident. I took train back to Rondebosch. After early dinner Barnard motored Braunholtz + me to Cape Town station for the 9 pm. train for Kimberley. Shared a compartment with Braunholtz + Carline. By no means a train-de-luxe, but we shook down somehow.


26—                            Passing over the Karroo. Very dried up, but bright colour patches of mesembrianthemums + other plants here + there. Some snow still lying on the higher mountains, + it was cold at the higher levels. Second night on train.


27th.                             After a baddish night (I had neuritis in the elbow + a beast of a cough + cold) the train reached Kimberley at 5.30 a.m. It was still dark.


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I got up but did not hurry as it was so early. I motored to the Kimberley Club, where I had been given a room, + got there at 6.30 am, had a much-wanted bath + breakfast + went off to the Museum at 9 a.m. Found Miss Wilman there. I spent the whole morning there with others of the party. Some specimens were given me by Miss Wilman + a very fine ’Kwé by Dr. Broome, one with a perfectly cylindrical bore which is quite exceptional. I packed these specimens for sending home, Miss Wilman undertaking to dispatch them. At 2 p.m. I was fetched by Mr. Cronin in his car + went with Lowe, Miss Murray + Miss Fleming out to Alexandersfontein, seeing a fine herd of Springboks on the way. We hunted around + I found some fairly good patches with stone implements, some of which I collected. Rejoined the rest of the party at the Alex-Hotel + we drove back to Kimberley. After dinner at the Club, Cronin fetched me with some others + took us to his house at ‘Kampfer Dam’, to see his ethnological photos. A very fine show of very high quality.


July 28th                      At 9 am. Cronin fetched me in his car (with Breuil, Fleure + Miss Fleming), others going in other cars. We went out to Canteen Kopje, about 16 miles out. There I met Mr. du Toit, the de Beers geologist. The kopje is simply littered with stone implements, mostly unfinished + many may be extracted from in situ with a high terrace (said to be 60 ft) gravel, where mining is being carried on. More than one period is represented


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“Stellenbosch” culture onwards. Some types closely resemble Tasmanian stone implements. The Abbé Breuil collected such a vast mass of implements that he became a nuisance + held up the whole party for a long while. I told him that he really could not be allowed to spoil the expedition + that he could not fill up a private car with heavy stones. He was eventually prevailed upon to leave the pile of stones, to be collected by lorry. Also he was transfered to another car with the Kellys + Miss Scofield took his place in Cronin’s car. This worked well. We went on to Mr. von Alphen’s house + were very hospitably entertained. He had hundreds of fine stone implements to give away (from Canteen Kopje + Pniel) + I was given several. Thence we went to Pniel + on the ‘Mission Kopje’ saw many rocks with “pecked” designs of animals etc, some good + fairly realistic, others poor; the pointillé style prevailed. We lunched al fresco, having brought our own nosebags + then went down to the Vaal R. bed close by. An amazing wealth of stone implements (‘Stellenbosch’, ‘Fauresmith’ types) is seen in the dry parts of the river bed. The implements are inconceivably abundant, the whole river-bed seeming to be covered with them. I collected some good ones, but had to reject hundreds, not having transport means. We next went to Nooitgedacht, where we examined the famous glaciated, striated rocks. On many of these smooth, ice-worn surfaces are engraved + ‘pecked’ designs of animals, conventional figures,


[Inserted into the pages of the diary are two photographs, with labels on the backs: “PNIEL, Vaal River, near Kimberley / Braunholtz holding up a ‘find’ / Phot. G.R. Carline 1929 [1929.23]”; “PNIEL, Vaal R., near Kimberley / G.R. Carline 1929”.]


[---FACING PAGE: Note: “I saw a few coursers, Cursorius rufus, and many of the large Ant-eating Chats (black with white rump).”---]


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concentric circles, [sketch]-designs, rectangular + other designs. Some of the animal figures are well done. These engravings are quite numerous. We had tea at Mr. + Mrs. Dold’s farm-house. They entertained not only our party but also a Geological party + were most hospitable. On the way back to Kimberley we stopped at ‘Half-Way House’ + walked up some Kopjes where are many rock-engravings, good + poor but quite abundant. Then back to Kimberley. I had just time for a bath + dinner, + then went to an improvised meeting of Section H. in Miss Wilman’s house. The room was very full. I had to take the chair. Dr. Broome gave an interesting talk on the Bushman, Hottentot + Korama physical types, + exhibited a large series of skulls, including a cast of the Boskop skull, which, although of great size, he was inclined to link with the Bushman type. A good discussion followed. I stayed till about 11.30 pm talking to Miss Wilman, who wanted to discuss Museum + other matters. I got to bed at 1 a.m. after a fairly strenuous + very interesting day, which involved hours of walking over the roughest rocky ground.


July 29.                       Spent the morning at the Museum. Took a tram to Alexandersfontein with Dr. Broome, to attend a lunch given by the De Beers Co. to the Brit. Assoc. About 300 people were present. Returned by tram + just had time to finish packing + catch the 4.20 train


[---FACING PAGE: Newspaper clipping of a photograph of “Dr. R. Broom”,---]


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to Johannesburg. I travelled with Carline. Slept very little.


July 30—                    Arrived at Johannesburg soon after 6 a.m. Found Raikes on the platform + after he had seen to the other Brit. Assoc. he + I motored to his house (official residence of the Principal of the University). Spent the day mainly over Sectional work with Miss Fleming, but I also saw van Riet Lowe’s collection, Leakey’s collection from Kenya, Father Otto’s copies of “Bushman” paintings + those exhibited by Frobenius.

                                    Mrs. Patrick Duncan, Mr. Schreiner + van Riet Lowe came to dinner with Raikes + Miss Raikes; + Raikes, Sidgwick + I went to hear F.E. Smith’s lecture on “R.101” (the new large airship) at the City Hall.


31—                            Section Committee at 8.45 am. In the Section, Leakey gave his lecture upon his excavation work in Kenya, with a very fine exhibit of obsidian implements (late Acheulian down to ‘Wilton’ industries). Other papers followed. In the evening we all went to the City Hall for the meeting at which Sir Thomas Holland was inducted as President of the Brit. Assoc. The Mayor, Hofmeyer, Smuts + Rutherford spoke + Sir T. Holland gave his presidential address. The acoustics of the City Hall extremely bad, + a howling draught in the box in which I was sitting with Miss Raikes + others, brought on a touch of lumbago + sciatica.


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a newspaper clipping of an article entitled: “ANTHROPOLOGISTS IN THE CITY. Unsurpassed Material for Study”.]


[---FACING PAGE: Newspaper clipping of an article from the “Rand Daily Mail. 31 July 1929”, entitled “VANDALISM DANGER IN SOUTH AFRICA. PROPOSAL TO APPROACH GOVERNMENT” with a photograph of Balfour; and a photograph of “Sir Thos. Holland, K.C.S.I., K.c.I.E., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S., President of the British Association.”---]


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Aug. 1—                     Section Committee at 8.45 a.m. At 9.30 I gave my presidential address to Section H, to a well-filled room. Was much hampered by a bad cold + cough + by lumbago + sciatica but managed to get through with it. Fleure took the chair. Afterwards Armstrong described his excavations in Bambata Cave, + Hewitt + others read papers. In the afternoon I wrote home, + then went to the Zoo with Sidgwick. Quite a nice, spacious Zoo with fair collection of animals. Mr. + Mrs. Selby came to dinner. Mr. Selby gave me much information regarding the Sabi Game Reserve. We all went after dinner to the Mayor’s reception at the City Hall. The guest sat at tables for 8 + there was supper + some good singing. The Hall was crowded.


2nd—                           Section Committee at 8.30 a.m. Section met at 9 am. I did not take the chair at first as I had to see about my ticket to Broken Hill etc. I went back at 10.30 to take the chair for Miss Caton Thompson’s lecture on the results of excavations at Great Zimbabwe + other ruins. The room was packed to overflowing + an overflow audience was outside the University building listening to the broadcast lecture. Lecture excellent. Discussion followed. Prof. Dart made rather an ass of himself + had to be sat upon + reduced to silence. Frobenius also tried to be troublesome + had to be wheeled into line. His own contribution to the discussion was very vague + unsubstantial.


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a newspaper article from the “Rand Daily Mail, 2.8.1929” entitled “CUL DE SAC FOR ANCIENT MIGRATIONS. SOUTH AFRICA’S UNPARALLELED WEALTH OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIAL. MR BALFOUR’S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. DUTY OF STATE TO PRESERVE PREHISTORIC RELICS” with a photograph of Balfour.]


[---FACING PAGE: Newspaper article from the “Rand Daily Mail, 2.8.1929” entitled “A RICH FIELD FOR RESEARCH”.---]


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I did not attend the afternoon session, as I had to go to the bank to draw £100 + to do other things in the town. I attended the Committee of Recommendations during the afternoon. Mr. + Mrs. Martin, Prof. Clay (president of the Economics Section) + Miss Grier came to dinner.


Aug. 3rd                       No section committee, but the General Committee met + a General meeting was held to wind up the meeting. After hurried lunch, Fleure, Sidgwick + I motored with Mrs. Hoernlé to Pretoria. Spent all the afternoon in the Museum, where Mr. Lang exhibited a very fine series of rock engravings + urged that some of these showed figures of extinct animals. (Mastodons, Equus capensis, Baine’s buffalo). I presided over the gathering, + a good discussion took place, the “mastodons” being generally discredited. Dr. Broome exhibited the skull + bones of “Springbok Flats” Man, + likened him to the Korama type, though his size is exceptional. Dr. Broome also pointed to close similarity to the skulls found by Leakey in Kenya + to the Combe Capelle type. I stayed on at the Museum + was eventually motored back to Johannesburg, but arrived too late to go to the City Hall + take the chair at Miss Caton Thompsons public lecture on ‘Zimbabwe’. Prof + Mrs. Hevesey (Hungarians) + Mr. + Mrs. Macrae dined with the Raikes + returned there after the meeting.


[---FACING PAGE: Three photographs, labelled: “The principal’s house, the University, Johannesburg.”; “H.R. Raikes, Miss Raikes + ‘Larry’”; “H.R. Raikes, Miss Raikes, Sir Thos. Holland”.---]


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Aug. 4th—                   In the morning several of us went to one of the Native Compounds to see some Shangaan dances. The music of 36 marimbas in three rows (trebles, seconds + basses) was the most interesting feature. The instruments were tuned to unison + were played with great skill, perfect rhythm + at lightning speed. The resonators were paint tins graded in size up to carbide-drums. In the afternoon Raikes, Miss Raikes + I went to see Mr. + Mrs. Paul Selby. Mr. S. showed us his excellent photographs of big game animals, mostly taken by him in the Sabi Game Reserve – a wonderful series. He gave us letters of introduction to the Game Rangers in the Reserve. Spent the evening packing + got to bed at 12.30 a.m.


5th                                Up at 5.30 am. Said goodbye to Miss Raikes, a delightful hostess, + started with Raikes in his car at 7.10 a.m. for Kruger National Park + the Game Reserve. We passed many of the mining works on the Rand + the Witbank collieries (90 miles). On to Machado dorp where we had some tea. Then to Belfast (6400 ft) where it started sleeting while we were having lunch by the roadside. We then commenced descending from the High Veldt + passed Wondersfontein; followed the Lydenburg for some distance before branching off to Nelspruit (c. 242 miles), were [sic] we arrived at 6.10 p.m. after about 10 1/4 hours of actual driving we put up at a small hotel, nice + clean. The vegetation on this side is attractive – Eucalyptus, pines, orange-trees in fruit, Erythrina + other trees in blossom,


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Ficus capensis, etc. We had dropped to 2,320 ft + it was very much milder. The scenery very delightful. During the day I saw Secretary-birds, a large blueish Harrier, Fiscal shrikes, white- and Red-winged spreues, large ant-eating chats, many larks + doves, a grey heron, Bee-eaters, Sun-birds, + Crowned Plovers. Bed at 9 pm.


Aug. 6th.                      Laid in some beer at Nelspruit + started for White River, which is a very pleasant looking spot with nice hotel. Then on to Kruger National Park, descending very steeply. We passed into the Sabi Game Reserve + called at Mr. Wolhuter’s house (one of the Game-wardens). Mrs. Wolhuter entertained us while we waited arrival of Mr. W. There was a fine show of game trophies in the house, including heads of 20 lions. Wolhuter had been badly mauled by a lion about 20 years ago + had been septically poisoned with lasting effect. He had managed to stab the lion with his knife + the skin is amongst his trophies. After a short talk with him we motored through the Reserve to Praetorius Kop, lunching by the wayside. On the way to the Kop we saw Oribi, Sable Antelope (young bull + two cows), herd of Burchell’s Zebras, several herds of Blue Wildebeestes, Roan antelopes (?). Also Grey Hornbills (very abundant, + a flock of Helmeted Guinea-fowl. We took possession of one of the small rest-huts – a small round, thatched hut, containing two charpay bedsteads with tight strained reims. We then walked back to the top of Praetorius Kop, where there are signs of Native occupation. Besides Wildebeestes of which we saw large numbers,


[---FACING PAGE: A clipping from “Graphic” 14.11.1931, with a photograph of zebras and wildebeests and a short article about “A SHOW PLACE: THE KRUGER NATIONAL PARK”.---]


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and Zebra herds, we saw 2 fine Kudu bulls with good heads + 2 ostriches. Back to the hut by dusk + we cooked a scratch meal over a wood fire in the open. We turned in very early. There was no catch on the door of the hut, which could not be called lion-proof! The reims of the bed very assertive, each reim making itself felt through the blanket. It got some sleep however.


Aug. 7th                       Up by sunrise, to motor to Sabi Bridge (where the railway crosses the Sabi R. On the way we saw Kudu (3, 6, 3, 3, mostly [male]), Sable (herd of 19, mixed), Red Duiker (2), Zebras (quantities), Ostriches (2), Wart-hogs (3, 3, 1); also a great many Hornbills, ‘Go-away’ birds, Rollers, Lowries, Crowned Plovers, + Bateleur Eagles. We diverged to visit Hippo Pool I, + walked along the Sabi as far as the dam. A few Hippopotamuses seen. Then we went on to Hippo Pool II + lunched on some rocks out in the river with hippos in view. A sharp shower of rain made the rocks so slippery that I had to take my shoes off + walk in socks. I picked up a “Stellenbosch cleaver” on the dry bed of the river. Some Hagedash Ibises were screaming + flying around. Later while motoring along we saw a very large herd of Impala (ewes + young rams) + later still Impalas (3 + 1, [male]); + some Black-backed Jackals. On arriving at Sabi Bridge we were given an unfurnished room with bare floor to sleep upon in the compound, + then went for a walk along the Sabi R.


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I saw a Kitlitz Plover + a ? Greenshank, a brilliantly-coloured Barbet, many Hornbills (even in the compound among the fowls), some ‘Go-aways’, White-winged Spreues, weaver-birds + Buffalo weaver-birds with huge communal nests. We were caught in very heavy rain. We next went to call on Colonel J. Stevenson Hamilton (Chief Game Warden) + he insisted upon our putting up at his house for the night, so we collected our things from the hut + brought them over + had a comfortable bedroom each. We spent a jolly evening with Hamilton. Mr. + Mrs. Roberts (who were living in their touring caravan) + Mrs. Holmes, all engaged in game photographing were dining at the house.


Aug. 8                         Before breakfast I walked around a bit + saw a lot of red-billed Grey Hornbills, Glossy Starlings, Magpie-shrikes, Cape + other Doves, Crimson-breasted Sun-birds, Crimson-throated Bee-eaters, Rollers, Bateleur Eagles etc. There were two tame Ostriches in the compound. We made a late start, as breakfast was late, but got off + crossed the Sabi R. on a cable-pontoon. On the way to Satâra we saw several Vervet monkeys, Sable Antelope (1, 9, 1), Zebras (7, 1, 5), Kudu (6 [male] + [female], 2, 3, 7, 1, 5), Wart-hogs (2, 4, 3, 2, 1, 3, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4), Wildebeestes (frequent herds), Sasseby (6), Waterbuck (12, 40), Giraffes (15), Fiancolins were very abundant, quail (a few only), Great Eagle Owl (1), Oribi (2) hobnobbing with a Jackal! We reached Satâra at about 4 pm. There we found Col. Eustace + two friends on a photographing


[---FACING PAGE: Two photographs of giraffes, labelled: “S. Africa”; “Kilimajaro.”---]


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expedition. Raikes + I took over one of the round huts, entirely unfurnished + collected hay to sleep on, the floor being cemented. We had a walk along the road leading to Oliphants R. till dusk, but saw little except Wildebeestes. On returning we cooked a meal in a frying pan + turned in on the hay. Jackals + hyaenas were turning up + lions starting roaring round the camp + continued at intervals through the night. Our hut had not door at all + the barbed wire fence round the compound was lying flat. Dogs came in + prowled round our hut frequently + I spent much of the night chasing them out; but luckily no lions visited us, as they could easily have selected from the menu (Raikes + me). Raikes is larger + more meaty than I am!


Aug. 9th—                   In spite of the dogs which got very excited at intervals when anything approached the camp + in spite of the intermittent chorus of wild beasts, we had a fairly comfortable night, + it was not cold. We were up by sunrise + got started very early, after a hurried breakfast, in the hope of seeing lions still about along the roads. But in his respect we had no luck. On the way to the boundary of the Reserve, francolins, doves + Grey hornbills were extremely abundant. We put up about 8 Ground Hornbills together. Passed a herd of Impala (2 [male], 20 [female]), Wildebeestes (passim), Waterbuck (1, 1, 15, 20, 3, 10, 1), another herd of Impala (2 [male] + 15 [female]), Oribi (2), Warthog (1), Kudu (9 young), Impala (1 [male] + 20 [female], and 3 [male]), Jackals,


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and some large brown Vultures. After passing outside the boundary on the road to Acorn Hoek we saw 5 Sassaby, 10 Zebras, a small squirrel, Hornbills, ‘Go-aways’, Magpie-fiscals, etc. At Acorn Hoek we filled up with petrol + then went on to Pilgrims’ Rest, via Gras Kop, up very steep gradients over the Drakensburg to Gras Kop. On reaching Pilgrim’s Rest, Raikes went to the gold mining works to see Mr. Barry (the General Manager), who invited us to stay the night at his house at Vaalhoek nearby. He took us for a short run in his car to see views, + then on to his house. Very cordially received by Mrs. Barry + Miss Mary Barry (who was out from England on a visit). Delightful house.


Aug. 10—                   In the morning Mr. Barry took us out to one of the gold mines + we walked a long way along the shaft deep into the mountain side, following the reef. Difficult rough + ankle-twisting walk as I had no lamp, which made it extremely awkward + painful. We saw the rock-drilling in process at the end of the shaft. Afterwards we went to the stamping mills + saw the cyanide process, stores, offices etc in Pilgrims’ Rest, + then returned to the house in time to start away in Raikes’ car at noon. Mrs. Barry gave us lunch to take with us. We motored to Lydenburg + thence via Wondersfontein to Belfast + so on to Middleburg, where we put up for the


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night at the Imperial Hotel. There was a dance there that night, but it did not disturb us much.


Aug. 11th—                 Breakfast at 8 + we started in good time for Johannesburg, via Arnot, Delmas, Springs + Witbank + along the Rand reef-workings. I saw some Meerkats, a lot of ibises, grey herons + egrets on the way. We reached Raikes’ house before 1 p.m. After bath + shave, I rearranged my luggage with a view to sending my cabin trunk to be put on board the “Durham Castle” at Beira or Durban, to meet me at Dar-es-Salam or Zanzibar. Raikes + I called on the Paul Selbys to report on our trip to the Game Reserve. We had early supper + went to the station for me to catch the 8 p.m train to Bulawayo. On the train I found Prof. + Mrs. Hevesey, F.P. Mennell, Mr. Otley (engineer) + Prof. Collins (botanist). The night was cold + I shared a compartment with a pleasant young engineer. Did not sleep.


12th                              Arrived at Mafeking soon after 7 a.m. Long wait there. Passed Lobatsi, Gaberones + Malapye, seeing on the way one cock ostrich, Bateleur Eagles, Rollers, ‘Go-aways’, Glossy Starlings, Fork-tailed Drongos + very many weaver-birds’ nests (both single + communal). Warm during the day, but cooking off at night. Fairly comfortable night.


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Aug. 13th—                 Arrived at Bulawayo a little before 9 a.m. Neville Jones met me at the station + motored me to his house at Hope Fountain, about 10 miles out. He showed me his collection of stone implements etc. which is good and representative, chiefly Rhodesian. After lunch he + I went + hunted over a site near Hope Fountain, where is evidently a factory site of a ? Pre-Chellean industry. I collected a number of the implements. Back to the house for tea with Mrs. Neville Jones, after which Jones motored me into the town + to the station to catch the 6 p.m train to Livingstone. The early morning had been very cold, but it warmed up later. I found Bulawayo greatly altered + developed since 1910, when I had last been there. The shops were greatly improved + the hospital had developed considerably. On the train I shared a compartment with two German geologists, quite pleasant + courteous. Prof. + Mrs. Hevesey, Braunholtz + Otley were on the train, which was very full. Very dusty journey.


14th—                          Arrived at the Victoria Falls at 10.45 a.m. Great changes since 1910. A large + very fine stone hotel has replaced the wood-+-tin shanties which used to serve as hotel. Many new houses have been built. I went on in the train to Livingstone. The widening of the Victoria Falls bridge had commenced, in order to provide a motor way across.


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Sidgwick, Morison + R.W. Dickinson (my host) met me + I went off with Dickinson to his house where I was to stay. Very delightful. After lunch I went to G.A.S. Northcote’s (Chief Secretary) house + found Morison, who motored me to the East End of the Falls. We looked about there + hunted a bit for implements, + walked to the “Knife-Edge”. We returned to Northcote’s house + went with him to Mr. + Mrs. Kennedy’s house, where we ‘sundowned’. Sidgwick, Morison + Northcote came to dine with the Dickinsons.


Aug. 15—                   In the morning I went to Northcote’s house to discuss with Sidgwick + Morison about our plans for motoring from Broken Hill to Dodoma. Morison very undecided about going + the arrangements rather vague. Sidgwick + I went to the Survey Office + saw some interesting air-views of the Falls etc, + some stereoscoping views. I was presented with a fine chart of the Victoria Falls area, prepared from the air-survey, by Mr. Fairweather (Head of the Survey Depnt.) After buying a few Barotse basketry objects in a store, I returned to the Dickinsons for lunch. In the afternoon Sidgwick + I motored to the Falls bridge + hunted over the gravels on the promontories below the Falls (left bank). The bridge was closed + we could not cross to the other side. While walking around we came across some baboons + saw some Trumpeter Hornbills (buccinator) + Red-billed grey hornbills,


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a photograph, labelled on the back: “Road from Victoria Falls to Livingstone, large quantities of stone implements found here. Aug. 1929 G.R. Carline.]


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both pretty abundant; Bronze-winged spreues, Fish-eagles (Haliaetus rocifer), Bateleur Eagles, Bush-babblers (‘Seven sisters’) + small blue finches. Returning to Livingstone we ‘sundowned’ at Northcote’s. After dinner with the Dickinsons, the latter + I went round to Mr. + Mrs. Vivyan, to hear their wireless sets.


Aug. 16—                   We all saw Morison off to Mazabuka by the northbound train nominally starting at 8.50 am, but very late in getting off. Afterwards Sidgwick + I took a taxi to the Falls bridge, + walked across to Danger Point + thence through the Rain Forest to the West End of the Falls. We met Prof. Hevesey + he came with us to Giese’s Landing. Many River Cormorants (Ph. africanus) were seen above the Falls + a Night Heron at the Western Cataract. We then went to the Station + looked up Percy Clarke, whom I was glad to see again. He had recently recovered from a bad internal hemorhage. We lunched with the Heveseys at the hotel, + after a short walk S. + I returned across the bridge to where the taxi was waiting for us. Tea with the Dickinsons, in whose garden I saw some Wood Hoopoes (Irrisor sp), Yellow-shouldered Parrots, Magpie Shrikes, Fork-tailed Drongos + Thrush-like birds with dark facial streaks. We all then motored to Mr. Webster’s house over the Maramba R. + I hunted for implements along the Maramba, but


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without success. Saw many weaver-birds nests on reeds over the river, some Kingfishers (Ceryle rudis) + a curious plover (not identified). We went back + ‘sundowned’ with the Websters + then I was dropped at Northcote’s house to go with him to call upon the Governor (Sir James Maxwell) at Government House. Dined quietly with the Dickinsons.


Aug. 17th                     Up at 6 am. Sidgwick + I went down to the Aerodrome +, one at a time, went up with Major Smith in an Avro-Avian plane. Flew over the Falls, down to beyond the Masui R. + up as far as Kandahar Island. Wonderfully interesting. We flew at about 1500 ft. Made a very good take-off + landing. After this we did some shopping in Livingstone for our motoring trip north. In the afternoon Northcote, Sidgwick + I motored to the Falls Bridge, + walked across + to the hotel – sending our evening dress clothes to the hotel by trolley. We went + hunted for implements over the ancient river-bed on the right bank below the hotel + towards the Masui for some hours. Then back to the hotel, ‘sundowned’ + dressed for dinner as guests of Mr. Otley (of Johannesburg, Electrical Engineer). After dinner we all walked through the Rain Forest by 3/4 moonlight. Very fine effect. Then S + Northcote + I motored back to Livingstone from the bridge, arriving at 11.30 pm. I was up till 1.15 a.m packing my luggage.


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Aug. 18th.                    Up at 6 a.m. Sorry to leave the Dickinsons who had been most hospitable + kind. Dickinson motored me to the station for the 8.50 am train to Broken Hill. Northcote also saw Sidgwick + me off. Train 20 minutes late at starting, but made up time later. Country rather monotonous – bush-country with euphorbias + enormous white-ant hills, through some of which railway-cuttings have been made. Saw some Secretary-birds, some Elanus caerulens + very many Fork-tailed Drongos, but none of the game animals or lions which used to be frequently seen when I last passed along this part of the railway. At 10.20 pm Morison joined the train at Mazabuka. At 11.50 pm the train crossed the Kafue R. bridge (my previous ‘furthest-north’ in this direction. The moon was nearly full + the river looking very fine + broad.


19th                              Soon after 7 a.m, after a somewhat disturbed night, we reached Broken Hill with its mines + dumps. The P.C. (T. Sandford) met us + after a long delay we raised a taxi + Sandford took our gear in his car + we went to his house where Mrs. Sandford received us. I was given a room in the house, Morison + Sidgwick had rooms in another house. After lunch we went into the town. Morison went to see Dr. Wallace, who strongly


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advised him to cry off the Tanganyika Expedition. Awkward predicament, as the proposed trip had been originally arranged for him. Sidgwick + I agreed that we must go through with the programme, as we felt committed.


Aug. 20—                   Morison still undecided whether to go with us or not. We went over the Broken Hill mine with Mr. Jessop in the morning. Saw a cast of the skull of “Rhodesian Man” + the remains of the cave from which it was excavated. In place of the original Kopje below which the cave extended, there is now an immense pit (resembling that at Kimberley, but much less extensive), the result of mining operations for zinc. We looked all over the zinc-extraction works which are on a big scale + elaborate. Later S. + I bought a few necessaries for our journey + fixed up with Lionel Smith (of Abercorn, owner + driver of the car) about starting next day. Did some packing + watched the Fork-tailed Drongos + Yellow-vented Bulbuls in Sandford’s garden.


21st—                          Morison definitely decided not to go with us. Sidgwick + I got the lorry loaded up with our bagage [sic] + some of Morison’s (to be left for him in Dar-es-Salam.) and we started off with Lionel Smith in the car (a Pontiac) at 9.20 a.m. Wassung drove the lorry. We got onto the Great North Road (more descriptively known as the “Great North Rut”) at once. The road




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was closely shut in by bush all the way, with very few open spaces. Crossed a small river on a very rough ‘corduroy’ bridge of poles. A fair amount of water in the river. These ‘corduroy’ bridges were mostly very sketchy, + we had to repair one before venturing across it. Few birds were seen, drongos + bronze-winged spreues being the commonest. We reached Kapiri Mposhi at about 12.20 pm. About 44 miles from Broken Hill, as we were making a short stage only. We took rooms at the little hotel run by Mr. Lock. 4211 ft o.d.. After lunch Sidgwick + I walked three miles along the Broken Hill road to a vlei; we photo’d a railway-cutting through a termite’s mound, which was about 40 yards long, the cutting was 20 ft wide + the mound must originally have been 15-16 feet high at the centre. We got a lift in a passing lorry (Cruikshank’s) part of the way back to Kapiri.


Aug. 22nd                     Up at 6 a.m, + we started off in the car at 6.40. Bush country with occasional open grass expanses, becoming more undulating, but very few views. Saw a Duiker run across the road. Crossed the Lunsenfwa R. Breakfasted by the roadside at 9.15 a.m. Bush-country still prevailed, but gneiss hills appeared later. We pulled up at Mwamdwella rest-camp + lunched off excellent eland brisket, brought from Kapiri. The natives in this district are A.Lala, and seem to be rather repressed, the


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result of former slave raiding + of the domination of the A. Wemba + A. Wisa. We passed more Duikers along the road + saw many Hornbills + Drongos. For a long way we ran along the Congo-Zambesi watershed. We turned off the main road for the last 17 miles into Serenjé, + this latter part was done after dark. Nightjars were abundant on the road + their eyes gleamed like lighted rubies under the spot-light. Mr. + Mrs. T. Chicken (he is D.C.) were expecting us somewhat earlier. We arrived at 6.30 p.m, + it was quite dark. Chicken was at St. John’s Coll. Oxford.


Aug. 23rd—                 Up at 6 am. The views from the house, which stands high are very fine + extensive. Collared Crows + Thick-billed Ravens were common around the house. We got started at 9 am. Saw a pair of large pale-coloured Cranes (? wattled) on a vlei. We took in petrol from Smith’s petrol dump at the junction with the main road. The bush along the road here is more attractive + much greener + with some brilliant reds + orange tints of young foliage. In the A. Wemba country. We stopped for lunch by the roadside near a small stream. Saw a brilliant Turacu flying past. We arrived at Mpika in the afternoon, + the D.C., V.E. Bourdillon took us into his house + gave us a room. Surroundings very beautiful; fine trees, excellent garden with pawpaws, strawberries (ripening), peaches etc. + magnificent


[---FACING PAGE: Labels: “Serenje, 193 miles from Kapiri”; “Mpika, 142 miles from Serenjé.”---]


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                                    cauliflowers, cabages [sic] + other vegetables. We found the newly arrived cadet – Murray at Mpika. He had come on from Broken Hill + had broken down + was waiting for another lorry. After tea Bourdillon, Sidgwick + I had a walk round the boma, from which are fine views over the valley + the swamps of Bangweolo. A fine sunset effect. Collared crows, thick-billed Ravens, White-winged spreues + Bulbuls abundant + I saw a Centropus cuckoo.


Aug. 24th                     Up at 6am. We started in the car at 8.20am. Crossed a small river, the Luikikila. Bush-country most of the way, but very pretty with wonderfully bright reds, pinks, magenta + yellow in the foliage (young, not autumnal). Proteas in flower were common. Passed several A.Wemba villages, well-built, with circular huts built with mud + wicker walls + neatly laid conical thatch roofs, projecting all round so as to form a circular verandah. Granaries are built of wattle + daub on piles. The A.Wemba are of fine physique + cheerful. We arrived at the Chambezi, a fine river, at 12.20pm., + had lunch there. I was shown a very fine skin of a chita, which the owner insisted was a very rare “maned leopard”! I had much difficulty in convincing him that the skin was of a chita + not a leopard. There were many kites, thick-billed Ravens + Pied Wagtails, around the spot. Several dug out canoes were on the river, including some used by the Duke of


[---FACING PAGE: Photograph of a canoe, labelled on the back: “Chambesi R., al Chambesi. N. Rhodesia Aug 1929 G.R. Carline (28.5)”.---]


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Gloucester during his recent shooting trip. Some of the canoes were of large size., flat bottomed + steady. I rescued a sandpiper from a native boy + let it go. We crossed the Chambezi on a pontoon worked along a wire rope, leaving at 2.15 p.m. Passed some very good Wemba villages. We nearly ran over a Ground Hornbill, which only rose on the wing at the last moment. We reached Kasama. Mr. + Mrs. Hillyer were playing golf, so we went to the links + had tea at the Golf Club house with Mrs. Colcutt (who before her marriage lived in Oxford) + later went with Hillyer to his house where we were very hospitably put up for the night. Murray had come on from Mpika in our car to Kasama, instead of coming by lorry with his baggage. We were invited to a dance at the hotel, to which everyone was going, but pleaded fatigue + having letters to write + we got to bed fairly early instead of at 3 or 4 in the morning.


Aug. 25th.                    Started from Kasama at 9.50 a.m. Road excellent. Wonderful spring tints in the foliage, the trees + bushes largely brilliantly red, yellow, maroon, orange etc, these colours almost dominating the greens. Looking down upon bush-covered areas red almost predominated. We passed through some good eland + roan country but saw no game. We stopped near a Lungu village at 12.30 pm. for lunch, the lorry arriving 3/4 hour later. Village of daub + wattle circular


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a photograph, labelled on the back: “Ferry across the chambezi R. at Chambezi. N. Rhodesia. Aug. 1929 G.R. Carline (26.3).]


[---FACING PAGE: note: “Kasama, 125 miles from Mpika.”; and four sketches, labelled: “Lungu girls with tattooed lines on forehead & temples.”; “Bone pendant commonly worn by Lungu girls.”; “A few Lungu girls had ear-lobes distended with rolled up leaves, c. 1 1/2” in diameter.”---]


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huts, with crude designs in white upon the walls. Cylindrical granaries of wattle + daub. The huts had encircling ‘verandahs’ formed by the over hang of the thatched conical roofs. When approaching Abercorn, after recrossing the Chambezi near its source, we made a short diversion from the main road to Mr. Lobb’s farm + had tea with Mrs. Lobb + her daughter. We had passed Lobb with his lorry broken down on the road, + he had been waiting there for four days for a motor mechanic (Cruickshank) to turn up + put things straight. We looked round Lobb’s garden, which is a good one, through frequently raided by baboons. We arrived at Abercorn at 5 p.m. The P.C. J.H. Venning, was not expecting us till next day, but Mr. Jelf was there when we arrived +, Venning being out, fixed us up with a room in the latter’s house. Venning materialized later – a cheery person with three fine + very nice Alsatian dogs. Situation of the house charming, overlooking a small lake. At night grass fires were seen burning in all directions.


Aug. 26th.                    A lion was reported as having been seen by several of the native employés prowling round the house during the night. The pug-marks were visible in the sand in the morning. The dogs had been very excited at night, but I did not look out, thinking that it was probably only a hyaena or leopard. Nothing untoward happened. In the morning a number of Kites, dark Eagles, ‘Go-aways’


[---FACING PAGE: Note: “Abercorn, 110 miles from Kasama”.---]


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a brown Vulture, bulbuls etc were seen around. S. + I walked down to the small lake which is very pretty. Saw many Dabchicks, some ducks (not identified), Crowned Plovers, a Sandpiper, Kites, Eagles, Buzzards, Sun-birds, Fiscal-shrikes, Yellow-vented Bulbuls etc. Also several enormous pale-buff bumble-bees. In the afternoon Venning motored Mrs. Jelf, Sidgwick + me down to the S. end of L. Tanganyika, about 25 miles away. Road awful in places + very steep. There were grass-fires on either side, sometimes right up to the road, + some risk of exploding the petrol tank. The end of the Lake very attractive. An island (infested with sleeping-sickness fly) lies near this end. Lake very deep. Several dug-outs were drawn up on the shores, which are infested with crocodiles. I saw several Kingfishers (Ceryle rudis), large + small Cormorants, Gulls (like Herring-gulls), a Black Stork, Small Night Heron, Fiscals + Buzzards. The ‘Zebra’ fish in the lake were attractive. I found an ancient midden with abundant stoneflakes + shells; but there was not time to investigate it. On the return trip to Abercorn we stopped at the farm house of Jim Kitchen (Lionel Smith’s partner) + ‘sundowned’ with Mr. + Mrs. Kitchen + a very cheery party. Some fine Borassus palms grow on Kitchens farm. Later we stopped at Mr. + Mrs. Laskey’s (? sic) farm house + ‘sundowned’ with them. Then back to Venning’s house, where


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the sun ‘downed’ a third time. Musical evening with Venning’s gramaphone + so to bed.


Aug. 27th.                    Up at 6.30 am. We saw the Customs Officer (Henderson) about Morison’s guns, cameras, etc. Met Mrs. Jelf + after looking at the small public library had tea with her. S. + I walked to “the Gardens” along the stream issuing from the small lake. There is a fine belt of forest along the stream with tall trees, Raphia palms etc. Saw Bateleur Eagles, Fiscal-shrikes, Bulbuls, Sunbirds, Coucals (Centropus) + a Marabout stork which soared high into the air till lost to sight. In the afternoon S. + I walked to the end of the small lake + along the far side. A large Grey Heron, Buff-backed Heron, Spur winged Plovers, a Sandpiper (? Greenshank), Coucals, ‘Meadow-larks’, very many Dabchicks, ducks (dark with white breasts) + bulbuls were seen. Towards evening Venning motored us to the cemetery on a low hill. Pretty spot with many War graves, surrounded by a stone wall.


28th.                             Started from Abercorn at 8.45 a.m. We called on Mrs. Jelf + at the Government Offices to say goodbye to Venning, Jelf etc. We reached Sunzu (the Smiths’ farm) at 10.15 am., + found Lionel Smith, his brother + sister there. Jim Kitchen was driving our car, as Lionel Smith was not able to come on beyond Abercorn, Bondel Wassung still in charge of the lorry. The farm is beautifully placed on the slopes of a mountain. A very well-built stone house with a very nice garden + excellent farming land. Quite one of the show farms of N. Rhodesia. We had lunch with the Smiths, a very jolly party. We did


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not take the road again till about 2.15 pm. We followed the Isoka Road for some distance + then, branching off to the left, went along an extremely bad road, overgrown with grass three feet or more high + difficult to follow. The bridges were in a very bad state + dangerous, but we eventually reached Mwenso, though the last few miles were done in pitch darkness. On the way we had seen several Duikers, many hornbills, some Crested Cranes, Coucals etc. We arrived at Mwenso Mission Station amidst a yelling mob of mission boys, who seemed quite uncontrolled + were an infernal nuisance (not good advertisement for the Mission). Being guests of the Mission we could not deal with the mob as we would have liked + had to curb our instincts. We were partly expected + tents had been erected for us. S. + I occupied one + Kitchen + Wassung the other. We had supper with Janson + Miss Pearce.


Aug. 29.                      Got up at 5.30 a.m. Still dark + started in the car at 6.10 a.m. before the boys were about. After a few miles we crossed the border into Tanganyika Territory. There was a sudden + marked change in the scenery, vegetation + even bird-life. We had extensive views with mountain backgrounds + the bush became more sparse. We outspanned for breakfast at 9.45 a.m. on some high ground with a splendid view overlooking the Bahora Flats, very extensive + comparatively low-lying bush-covered plains with high mountain range facing us. Afterwards we dropped down to the Bahora Flats (3500 ft. o.d.). Baobabs + huge candelabra Euphorbias, tall palms, Raphia palms, Erythrinas in bloom, acacia fistula, etc.


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A great wealth of bird-life – Glossy Starlings, Fiscal + Magpie Shrikes, Spreues, Eagles, Kites, Rollers, Bee-eaters, Hornbills (2 or 3 small species), Crowned Lapwings, were all abundant. A huge flock of 35-40 Crowned Cranes flew low over us, + we saw three Egyptian Geese + some Hammerkops. We passed quite close to a herd of 7 Giraffes + stopped to watch them. Also saw some Impala + a lot of grey monkeys. After dark we still had a very long way to go before reaching Malangali + it seemed as though we never would get there. The spot light revealed Bush Cats at intervals, their eyes glowing in a remarkable way. I saw some Thick-knees on the road in the glare of the head lights + passed an Eagle Owl on a culvert, 2 ft from the car. We eventually reached W. Bryant Mumford’s house at the Education boma, Malangali, + he gave us a room for the night. We dined with him + Mr. + Mrs. Brown (Canadians who had studied under Malinowski + were investigating social anthropology in the district.)


Aug. 30.                      I went round the Education Establishment + gardens with Mumford (He had visited me in Oxford before coming out to Africa). Saw the blacksmith’s workshop, where spears are made on a stone anvil with native bellows (both bag-bellows + stick bellows used). Shields of Zulu type also made here for dances etc. Carpentry, tailoring, building, cattle-rearing + agriculture are also taught.

                                    We started away in the car at 10.20 a.m. Soon after we passed + stopped to look at a remarkable ravine, curiously denuded + showing a wonderful pink subsoil, weathered into fantastic shapes, buttresses etc, + partly stalactitic. The scenery was very open, undulating with very open bush + fine mountains. A Duiker crossed the road. We stopped for lunch at a small stream where the corduroy bridge was


[---FACING PAGE: Note: “Malangali, 4700 ft. o.d.”---]


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                                    much damaged + in a dangerous state. Glossy starlings numerous, eagles (one with conspicuous white wing-patches) + a very beautiful large raptorial with reddish tail (? Augur Buzzard) were seen. When nearing Iringa we saw two Crowned Cranes (Balearica regolarum), some Pelicans + Yellow-billed ducks on a vlei. Also many rollers + hornbills. A few miles from Iringa the lorry picked up Mr. Bagshaw (a former P.C. of Iringa) whose car had a wheel off, + brought him into Iringa. We arrived there at about 4 pm. The Iringa Hotel was full up, so we went to see Mr. Thompson (the P.C.) who was not at home. We then went to the Golf links to find him. The D.c. who was there was very friendly + I also met Yates (one of my cadet students of 18 months ago) at the Club-house. The P.C., Thompson, eventually came in, + as his house was full up, he suggested our going to Meyers Hotel, which we did + luckily got rooms there – primitive but adequate. After dinner at Meyers’ we went round to the Iringa Hotel where we found Yates + Colonel Llewellyn (who was motoring to Dodoma + going to Dar-es-Salam in our train).


Aug. 31                       Up at 6am. We went to the Boma at 8 + sent wires to Culwick + the station-master at Dodoma + to the Secretariat at Dar-es-Salam; consulted the Customs officer about Morison’s guns etc. Started from Iringa at 9 a.m, after a broken spring on the lorry had been mended. A well-engineered road led over high ground. Road, however, very narrow + a car had gone overboard with fatal results some time ago. View from the top, over very extensive plains, extremely fine. Thin bush covered plains with mountains in background. We passed quite close to some Kudu. We dropped rapidly


[---FACING PAGE: Notes: “Close to this bridge I found a spot where natives had made a small fire by the roadside, + picked up two pairs of friction-fire-making sticks (hand-drill) by the side, evidently used very recently.”; “Iringa, 100 miles from Malangali”.---]


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                                    down to the plains + it became extremely hot + very dried up. Bird-life plentiful – Rollers, Colies, Hornbills, weaver-birds (the nests with two entrances each), Francolins, dove Parakeets (Agapornis sp.), Barbets, ‘Go-Aways’, Eagles, Thick-billed Ravens, Collared Crows, Fly-catchers + Crowned Lapwings were seen in the bush-country. A few Dik-Dik antelopes, and “sign” of rhinoceros were seen on the road. At 1 p.m we crossed the Ruaha, a substantial river, on a pontoon. The water looked a bad colour so we did not stop for lunch, but went on in search of better water. All the streams, however, were bone dry + we had no luck. The natives, presumably, Wa.Gogo, strongly resembled Masai in type + getup. Their houses are very long, rectangular + divided up into sections. Goats were plentiful + some cattle were around, though there seemed to be nothing for them to eat + water was very scarce.Baobabs are exceedingly numerous + in some areas are the only big trees. The road was comparatively ‘good’, but going fast involved a fearful shaking up for the one on the back seat of the car + I was nearly jolted to pieces. We arrived at Dodoma completing the last stage of our motor trip, at 4p.m. + went to the hotel for tea-cum-lunch of hard-boiled eggs. A very tame young kudu was strolling about the hotel verandah + in + out of the kitchen + other rooms. Sidgwick + I went to the railway station to make sure of our reservations on the train + T. Culwick gave us more tea. The Culwicks had only moved into this house that morning, but although everything was ar sixes + sevens, they insisted on our dining with them. So


[---FACING PAGE: Note: “Dodoma, 165 miles from Iringa.”---]


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                                    we motored back top the hotel, to collect our luggage on Culwick’s lorry said goodbye to Jim Kitchen + Wassung, both excellent fellows + delightful companions, + returned to Culwick’s house for dinner. We remained chatting + seeing Culwick’s collection until well past midnight, + then we went in the lorry with Culwick + his wife + dog to the station.


Sept. 1st                       The train was very crowded + it took some time to find our places, but it started at 1.25 a.m, the Culwicks waiting to see us off. Fairly uncomfortable train, full of people going to Dar-es-Salam for the Exhibition. No bedding available, so S. + I made ourselves as comfortable (?) as we could with a blanket apiece, as we luckily had these with us, + slept on upper ‘hammock’ bunks, with handbags as pillows. After sunrise the country was flat with distant hills, which gradually approached the like on both sides. Here the scenery was more picturesque. We passed many big Sisal plantations, cotton plantations etc. Baobabs + palms abundant. At 7.30 a.m we stopped for some time at Kilosa + took on more passengers. A few vultures + bee-eaters were seen, but bird-life was scarce. From here the country is heavily cultivated. Arrived at Dar-es-Salam at 7.45 p.m., after more than 18 hours in a slow train. It was pitch dark, but luckily Mr. Kitchen had come to meet us + helped us greatly in getting our luggage transported to the Chief Secretary’s house. Mr. Kitchen motored us to the house + the Acting Chief Secretary, Boyd S. MacElderry + his wife received us very cordially,


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                                    in spite of our having held up dinner till a late hour. They most kindly made us their guests + gave us rooms in their own house, next door to the Chief Secretary’s house, which they themselves were temporarily occupying. This was great luck, as the town was full up with visitors to the Exhibition (Sept. 2-16). The MacElderrys were immensely kind hosts. Mr. Swinnerton (sleeping-sickness expert + ornithologist) was also staying with them, + Margaret (their small daughter + Miss Haswelll, governess made up the party. Both houses very nice, facing the entrance to the harbour + looking over the coral reefs (exposed at low water), + looking over the coral reefs (exposed at low water), coconut palms all around + a great baobab in front of entrance to the smaller house. Mosquitos were rather numerous + mosquito nets at night indispensable.


Sept. 2nd                      Breakfast at 8. All of us went to the Exhibition for the opening ceremony performed by the Governor, Sir Donald Cameron + Lady Cameron, to whom Margaret MacElderry presented a bouquet. I bought some ethnological specimens at the Exhibition. In afternoon I ricksha’d into the town with Swinnerton. Sent a wire home. Called at Smith Mackenzie, about the “Durham Castle” but they had no instructions as to my berth having been booked, went to Exhibition again + saw Swinnerton’s exhibit of birds etc. After tea the MacElderrys motored Sidgwick + me along the Bagamojo road + back by the coast road. Saw many dug-out canoes + double-outrigger canoes. Mr. Campbell came to dinner.


3rd                                Up before sunrise + saw the sun rise over the reef + through the coconut palms – very beautiful effect.


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                                    Round the house were several bulbuls, a tiny barbet in a custard apple tree, many brown-headed, speckled-breasted swallows. Kites were plentiful + beginning to build in the palms. At 10 Mr. Mitchell motored us to the Exhibition + arranged for some purchases of specimens. We saw some hybrid zebra-mules. In the middle of the day at low tide I saw on the reef scores of open-bill storks (Anastomus lamelligerus) + some wood ibises, white storks, Herons, curlews, whimbrels, oyster-catchers + collared Crows. After lunch S. + I walked along the shore to photograph outrigger canoes. We walked along the shore to photograph outrigger canoes. We watched the crabs scuttling over the sand + diving into holes. Very hot in the sun. Dr. Shircore came in to dinner.


Sept. 4th                       Up at 6.30 am. Saw some Wood Ibises + Grey Herons on top of a baobab, which they frequent each day. After breakfast S. + I went to the bank + paid over the balance of money due to Lionel Smith, + to the shipping agents of the D.O.A. Line + Union Castle linem but I still got no satisfaction from Smith Mackenzie, who seemed pretty hopeless. At 11.30 we went to Dr. Shircore’s house + saw his curios + met there Capt. Smith (A.D.C. to the Governor) + had a cock-tail. At low tide on the reef were anastomus storks, white storks, wood ibises, a flamingo, great white egret, grey herons, = oyster catchers. Also Curlews + Whimbrel + small plovers. After lunch I walked along the shore to the bridge over the creek + the mangrove swamps + back. Tide was high + birds scarce. After tea I walked to + around Dar-es-Salam + back by the harbour front watching the French mail boat, General Duchesne come in. I went round by the “Narrows”


[---FACING PAGE: Note: “P.E. Mitchell, Secretary if Native Affairs, the Secretariat.”---]


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                                    Palm Swifts + martins were very abundant + I saw one legaparnis on a palm tree + visited the giant tortoise (from Mauritius) near the German Mission. Mr. + Mrs. Campbell came to dine with the MacElderrys.


Sept. 5th                       Up at 6.15 am. to see the sunrise. S. + I spent some time on the sand watching the crabs, which were very amusing, fielding skillfully any small objects thrown at them, + dashing for their holes if we moved. Several Wood Ibises were on the reef, + a number of small dark Reef Herons, with a curious habit when feeding of suddenly spreading their wings + arching them over like an umbrella, apparently to shade the patch from the sun’s glare + improve the visibility. A short run, sudden stop + quick expansion of the wings were repeated at intervals, + the effect was very curious. I had never heard of this habit. Storks, grey Herons, Curlews, Whimbrels, Sandpipers, + Oyster Catchers were also feeding busily on the reef. Later on I saw a Stanley Crane. Walked into the town + learnt that “Durham Castle” would not arrive till the 9th. Back to the house for lunch + found that Julian Huxley had turned up unexpectedly on his way up country. Mrs. MacElderry, Sidgwick + I were motored by Dr. Williams up to Observation Hill. Fine view over entrance to the harbour + Zanzibar clearly seen 40 miles away. Dined at Government House, with Sir Donald + Lady Cameron. Mrs. Turner, whom I met last year in Nairobi, at the Ritchies’ house, was there, also Lady Delamere + several others. Sat on Lady Cameron’s right + next to Mrs. Turner.


6th                                Another fruitless struggle with smith Mackenzie. Took ticket for passage to Zanzibar in the “Khalifa”. Walked back


[---FACING PAGE: Sketch of a crab; note: “Reef herons (probably Leptorodius gularis. / ‘Kulasbara’ of Zanzibar.”---]


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                                    along the harbour + entrance, calling on the Mauritian tortoise on the way. Many open-bills (anastomus) were on the reef with the usual birds. Huxley, Sidgwick + I took our lunch with us + were motored by Swinnerton to the wooden bridge over the creek, to investigate the mangrove swamps. Had picnic lunch washed down with green coconut milk. We watched the Fiddler Crabs + Periophthalmus, both very abundant. Ceryle rudis fishing in the creek + some sandpipers. In the afternoon Mr. Hillyer motored us to the town to visit the markets. The fish market had Remora, Belone, sharks, Grey Mullet etc + in the vegetable market, Cassava (manioc), sweet potatos, rice etc. We went to where the native millet-beer is brewed + the drinking place where it is consumed. Unsavoury looking stuff! Packed up till past midnight.


Sept. 7th                       Up at 6.15 am. Finished packing. Went down to Custom House + passed my baggage + sent it off to the Zanzibar Government steamer “Khalifa”. Early lunch + motored with MacElderry + Sherwood to the landing jetty + went on board the “Khalifa” in the Government launch with Sidgwick, Huxley + Mason, who were coming with me to Zanzibar. We started at 1.30 pm. Smooth sea + little motion. Saw Open-bills, Reef-herons, large Egrets + Oyster Catchers on the reef going out. We passed the lighthouse island on the Zanzibar fringing-reef at 5.30 pm. + ran alongside the quay at Zanzibar town at 6.30pm. Sooty + white-fronted terns were plentiful. Many double-outrigger dug-outs seen. In the harbour were some dhows of the ‘Lami’ type. Hollis’ Aide de Camp, Sullivan, met Huxley + me, + Battiscombe


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met Sidgwick. Motored to the Residency, where Hollis was waiting for us. I was given a palatial room with sitting room attached + with splendid view over the sea + the distant fringing reef + islands. The Residency Garden reaches the shore. The luggage was long in arriving + I had to dress hurriedly for dinner. When I went down I found several of the officers of H.M.S. “Emerald” disguised grotesquely as sailors, fire men etc, who had come to dine before going to a fancy dress party. The dance took place in the Victoria Gardens, just opposite the Residency, where stands a building erected over the bathing-tank of a former Sultan. The naval officers let themselves go + fairly took charge of the proceedings. I met there Dr. Smith, Thompson (head of the police + Mrs. Parnell, with whom I had travelled last year in the “Llandaff Castle”. Came back with Hollis to the Residency at midnight, leaving Huxley to go on dancing.


Sept. 8                         Breakfast at 7.30am. Had a walk along the shore with Huxley + watched natives drawing in a seine net, with others swimming +splashing to keep the fish in. Rest of morning spent at the Museum with the curator, Dr. A.H. Spurrier, C.M.G., O.B.E.) Very interesting + practically entirely local, illustrating Zanzibar + Pemba. Relics of Livingstone, Stanley, Kirk etc. Several purely local species among the fauna (Leopard, a Duiker [Cephalophus Edersi], Colobus Kirkii, an Elephant Shrew [Rhynchocyon Edersi] all peculiar to Zanzibar. After tea Sir Claud Hollis motored us in a fine Daimler round about + to Dunga, to see the clove industry. We saw clove trees in bud, the picked buds drying in the sun on mats or cement floors + different grades of cloves. We passed through coconut plantations + innumerable mango trees, Casuarinas,


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                                    Arecapalms, Durians, Custard-apple trees, Nutmegs, Cocoa-trees, Cassava shambas, sweet potatoes, Bauhinias [with white blossoms], Ficus, Jack-fruit trees, baobabs etc. Very beautiful + varied. The [sic] we passed over an infertile + barren area with next to no soil + then again a fertile tract as before. On the way back we followed Princess Louise Drive + along the coast, walking the last mile or so past Livingstone’s house, the reclaimed ground + canal. The birds seen were Layard’s Bulbuls (Pycnonotus layardi), Corvus scapulatus, Indian crows (very like Jackdaws, + introduced when a Parsî Tower-of-Silence was erected, though its use was subsequently disallowed), Isabelle Swallows (Hirundo puella) with coper-coloured head + streaked breast, + spot-winged Doves (Chalcopelia afra) + sun-birds. Dr. Spurrier + Mr. Henry came to dinner at the Residency. Small avadarat finches were flying about the house, trying to nest in the very fine cut-glass chandeliers.


Sept. 9th                       Breakfast at 7.30 am. In morning I walked about the town, along the fruit-market + as far as Livingstone’s house, back by the landing place + clove stores + through the bazaars. Then to the Museum. At 11.15 I went with the Resident to visit the Sultan, who was very affable + genial. Sidgwick + Huxley also present. After lunch Huxley + I visited the native hospital + went all over it, + also the Research Laboratories nearby. Later Hollis took Huxley + me for a walk around the town, + over the Municipal Offices (a fine view from top of the building), past houses in which Stanley and Kirk stayed + through endless narrow streets, seeing many finely-carved, massive doors studded with huge knobs; then along the ‘Spit’, a native fishing-quarter. Coir rope was being made, with


[---FACING PAGE: Note: “Red-breasted Sunbirds (Chalcomitra gutturalis)”.---]


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                                    single + triple wooden cranks, with huge grooved, tapering wooden strand-separator for three-ply cord. On the sandy shore at the end of the ‘Spit’ dhows were careened + repaired. The “Durham Castle” arrived during the evening. Sidgwick + Huxley went off after dinner to go on board the D.O.A. Line SS. “Usaramo”, + I was left for a quiet talk with Hollis. [I saw a Gannet, probably S. cyanops early in the afternoon].


Sept. 10th                     Breakfast at 7.30 am, I went for a walk in the town, posted letter to Mrs. MacElderry (Dar-es-Salam) + went to the landing place to see what Brit. Assoc. folk were about. A lot landed from the “Durham Castle”, + Myres + I motored with several others to the Museum + then into the country in a car provided by Government, visiting a ruined palace near the present Summer Residence. I returned to the Residency for lunch where Clemens, a late Treasury clerk at Sierra Leone, was visiting Hollis + stayed to lunch. I fixed up with Smith Mackenzie my berth in the “Durham Castle”, paying £5-15-0 extra passage-money + £2-3-2 for a B.II berth. In the afternoon Hollis motored Myres, Bartlett + me in his car out to a spot, whence we walked to the “Pink Terraces”, a curious + striking weathering effect very like the ravine seen on Aug. 30 near Malangali. We passed through clove-plantation + coconut groves. The car went round + we rejoined it after a 4-mile walk. After dinner at the Residency I motored with Sullivan (the Chief Secretary) to the landing quay + went on board the “Durham Castle” at 9.30 pm. in the Government launch. We weighed anchor at 10.30pm. Very calm.


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Sept 11th                      Anchored off the coast near Tanga before daybreak + went in at about 7 a.m. + anchored off the town. Beautiful scenery of coral with mangroves, palms, baobabs etc. I went ashore during the morning with Hudson Beare + Miss Heard + we walked through the developing township + along the coast + down to the sandy shore + mangroves. Kites very numerous; Isabelle Swallows, Fork-tailed Drongos + very small finches abundant. I also saw Colies, a large blueish falcon, a Senegal Kingfisher, Collared Crows + Sandpipers. Some very white terns with black cap + white forehead were in the harbour + a school of all-black dolphins (or ? Bottlenosed Whales). After returning on board I saw some very large Gar-fish (Belone) 3’6” or 4’ long. We weighed anchor at 2.15 pm, but anchored again when outside the fringing reef.


12th                              We got started again sometime during the night + were off Mombasa by daybreak. Entered Kilindini harbour + tied up at the quay. The “Llandaff Castle” + the “Usaramo” were there already + H.M.S. “Emerald” was lying off. Kites + terns were numerous. The Egertons + Sidgwick (ex “Usaramo”) were on the quay + I had a talk with them + gave Sidgwick lerters to post at Port Said. I taxied with Myres to the P.C.’s (Montgomerie) office + we talked to him about preservation + excavation of ancient ruins. Myres + I then walked around the native town, to the fish-market, and then through the P.C.’s garden (Watkins’ house of last year, where I stayed) + on to Government House for the view over the sea + reef. Myres went to lunch with a friend + I walked back to Kilindini Quay. I went on board the “Llandaff Castle” to call on the doctor + any of last year’s officers, but


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a postcard, with on one side a photograph of “The Second Class Smoking Room, R.M.S. “Balmoral Castle” (13,361 Tons).” and on the other a photograph of “The Union-Castle Line Intermediate Steamship, “Durham Castle” (8,228 Tons).”]


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a booklet containing the list of passengers for the S.S. “Durham Castle” sailing for England from Mombasa on 15th September 1929.]


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a newspaper clipping of a photograph of four people, labelled: “DISTINGUISHED IN THE WORLD OF ENGINEERING. Sir Thomas Hudson Beare. With Sir Thomas (from left to right) are Miss Margaret P. Banks, Lady Beare and Miss Heward.”]


[---FACING PAGE: Note: “Lesser Crested Terns (St. Media)”.---]


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                                    drew blank, the doctor had gone to look for me on board the “Durham Castle” + we managed to miss each other. After lunch on board, I took a ticket for Nairobi + got onto the 3.30 pm train at the quay side. At 4.30 the train left Mombasa. I travelled 2nd class with Prof. Franklin (Prof. Of Chemistry, Stanford University, California) _ Mr. Corkill. Very dusty travelling, but otherwise not too bad.


Sept. 13                       I was looking out of the train before sunrise + saw 3 giraffes not 100 yards away, some miles before we reached Makindu. During the morning there were splendid views of Kilima Njaro which was clear of cloud to its snow-cap for several hours. I saw plenty of game – Kongoni, Topi, Thomson’s + Grant’s Gazelles, Wildebeestes, Grant’s Zebras, Ostriches, Impala, + Augur Buzzards, Black-shouldered Kites (Elanus caeruleus) etc. The train was about two hours late + Myres + I were unable to go + see the Governor (Sir Edward Grigg), who had sent a car for us + had asked us to lunch. I had to telephone excuses, as we had to hurry on. I had intended going on by train to Naivasha, but Leakey had come to meet the train + induced Myres + me to come out to Elmenteita with him, together with 3 Geologists (Boswell, Cox + Double). He had his own lorry, driven by Solomon, his Geologist mate, + he had got Government to furnish a car for Myres + me. So I cancelled the Naivasha plan + went with Leakey + the others. We all lunched at the hotel at Kikuyu (at Government expense – “distinguished visitors” fund!!). Then going over the top of the Kikuyu Escarpment. Glorious view over the Great Rift Valley + the volcano


[---FACING PAGE: Photograph of the “KILIMA NJARO / KIBO (19 710FT.) FROM THE PLATEAU (15,000FT.)” by Major Lennox Browne.---]


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                                    of Longonot, away to the Mau Escarpment on the other side of the valley. Then down the steep escarpment + across the valley plains to Naivasha, passing a herd of Kongoni, Wildebeestes, Zebras etc. Past Gilgil, near which a large swarm of locusts was ravaging, to “Gilgil Lake” (which dries up at times) where we stopped to look at the swarming birds + Knob-billed Geese, ducks, Curlews, herons, Spur-winged and Crowned Plovers etc etc. Then past Elmenteita Lake where one pink patch of flamingos was visible (rather early for them to be on this lake). We saw some Impala + Grant’s Gazelles + dropped down to the plains + past Elmenteita station to Gamble’s farm passing some zebras on the way. We went past Gamble’s farm (we had met Mrs. Gamble motoring the other way) +, having motored some distance beyond, Leakey, Myres + I walked up to Gamble’s Cave, to see the recent excavations, which were far more advanced than when I was there last year, + had reached the old beach level. It got dark while we were there + we walked back to the car + motored to Leakey’s camp where Mrs. Leakey insisted on putting us, as well as the 3 Geologists up for the night. Myres + I were given the Leakeys’ room, while they slept in the lorry! We saw Leakey’s collection + the complete skeleton of Homo Sapiens from Gamble’s Cave, after an excellent dinner.


Sept. 14th                     I got up early + strolled around before breakfast looking at the birds – Blue Cut-throat finches, weaver-birds,


[---FACING PAGE: Newspaper clipping from the “East African Standard, 14 Sept.” about the visit of members of the British Association.---]


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                                    Bush Babblers (‘Seven sisters’), Carmine-throated Bee-eaters etc.. The pink line of Flamingoes all round Lake Nakuru was plainly visible a long way off. We all, including Mrs. Leakey, started away in the car + lorry at about 9 am. Stopped to examine the terrace gravels over Kariandusi (Enderrian culture) + two beautiful obsidian implements were excavated in situ + given to me. They are of Late Acheulian type + very fine examples. Then we went on to the “Gilgil River” terrace deposits (Gamblian culture) + picked up some ‘Aurignacian’ obsidian implements. Abundant artefacts were lying around. Next we stopped at a farm near Naivasha where ‘Wilton’ industry implements + ‘Mousterian’ types also of obsidian occur abundantly, + also quantities of fossil remains of animals. Then we lunched at the Bell Hotel, Naivasha. A farmer’s conference was being held there + several cars had come in. Soon after leaving Naivasha, the lorry broke down + we had to leave the Leakeys + Solomon with the lorry, + the three geologists, Myres + I + our driver went on in the car. We developed engine-trouble presently + while still 40 miles from Nairobi had a bare 2 hours in which to catch our train. With difficulty + several stoppages we reached the top of the Escarpment on a baddish road, + we managed by forcing the car along to reach Nairobi station with 10 minutes to spare, the train being due to start at 4pm. It actually started at 4.20. I had a Dutch farmer as stable-companion in a 2nd. class compartment quite a pleasant fellow. Game plentiful till dark, especially near the Kapiti Plains. I saw Wildebeestes,


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                                    Zebras, Thompson’s + Grant’s Gazelles, Kongoni, Topi, Impala, and also Kori bustard, Lesser Bustards (O. melanogaster), Grey + Egyptian Vultures, Secretary-birds etc. etc.


Sept. 15th                     Cloudy morning. Arrived at Kilindini 8.30 a.m., went on to Mombasa + then back to Kilindini quay. Went on board + changed. Heard that Ali ben Sehim (the most influential Arab in Mombasa) wanted advice about archaeological matters + had sent his car. So I went off in his car to his house in the native quarter of Mombasa + had a talk with him. I had been to see him last year with Watkins. He was invalided + confined to the house, having that morning had a jigger removed from his toe, but he was in good spirits + very genial. He is coming to England soon to received the accolade from the King. I went back to the ship in his car + the “Durham Castle” cast off at 12.15 p.m. There had been heavy showers during the morning + it rained again during the evening + at night – unusual rains at this time of year. Wind somewhat S. of E. + some rolling.


16th                              Up at 5.30 am. Fairly cool breeze, fine but cloudy at times; ship rolling a bit. Saw only one bird – a Frigate-bird (probably a Lesser F-B.), the first I have ever seen on this coast. It flew around the ship for a while, then went off. Flying-fish fairly plentiful.


17th Up at 6am. Fine, sunny + hot, but S-E. breeze pleasantly cool. Very large schools of dolphins of large size, with some smaller of a different species. A single gannet seen early in morning. Sea temperature 74°F.


18th                              Conditions much the same. In sight of land, good overtaking


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                                    breeze keeping it fairly cool. A few petrels. Flying-fish not abundant, some Swordfish jumping out of the water. I chummed with a Ring-tailed Lemur belonging to one of the deck-hands.


Sept. 19th                     We passed Cape Guardafui during the small hours, between 3 and 4.30 am. Saw the light on the port bow at 3 a.m. Got up at 5.30 am. Life more abundant – Sooty Terns in large numbers, Réunion Petrels (all-dark) also numerous. Gannets (? Cyanops) fishing. Dolphins in great numbers in large schools; Swordfish, Albacore + Bonito. A spotted Flycatcher remained on board all day. Sea oily-calm after Guardafui + very hot. Sea temperature at noon 87°F. Wrote to Hutton.


20th                              Very little breeze + very hot. Sea temperature 86°F. Aden gulls (L. Hemprichii) abundant. A few dolphins only. Swordfish rather plentiful + jumping right out several times in succession. Arrived at Aden at 12.45 p.m. Very hot + I did not go ashore. Kites very numerous; a few Lesser Blackbacked Gulls (ad. + imm.); a few Egyptian Vultures. Many pelicans on a sand-spit in the distance. We weighed anchor at 5.45 pm.


21st                              Up at 5.45 am. We were men among the ‘Twelve Apostles’. Following wind, but pretty strong. Temperature 92° during morning + sea-temperature 90°F. Sweaty day. Larus hemprichii + L. leucophthalmus very abundant round + on the ship. Some Brown Gannets (leucogastra). Sooty Terns common at first, also Crested Terns (St. bergii) + some Lesser Crested Terns (St. media). A few Storm Petrels. Later, off the Kamaran Ids. (c. 3 p.m.) I saw a Tropic-bird (Ph. aethereus), a few Brown Gannets, White Gannets (? Cyanops), Larus leucophthalmus + Storm Petrels fairly abundant. A few very slender black dolphins. Very sultry in afternoon + evening.


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[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a newspaper clipping with a photograph and short article about “PROFESSOR J.L. MYRES”.]


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a newspaper clipping with a photograph and short article about “Prof. J. L. Myres, O.B.E., D.Sc., F.S.A., F.B.A., one of the general secretaries of the British Association”.]


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[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a letter addressed to Balfour from an acquaintance, on stationery headed “GRAND PUMP ROOM HOTEL BATH”.]



Notebook II: South & East Africa – 1929 –


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Sept. 22                       Grey Wagtails on board, also a dove, all exceedingly tame. One Sooty Tern, Aden and Leucophthalmus Gulls, Sterna bergii and a few dolphins seen. Arrived at Port Sudan at midnight, but had to wait a long time for a pilot.


23                                Tied up against the quay, Port Sudan, at 1.30 a.m., when I turned in. Did not get up till 6.15 a.m. Unloading was already started. In the harbour were many gulls (L. hemprichii, L. leucophthalmus + ? L. ichthyaetus), + Terns (St. bergii + a smaller pale-coloured tern, probably St. media). Kites, Ravens, Egyptian Vultures also seen. Round the ship were immense schools of small fish, garfish + some very large fish, 3-4 ft. long. I walked along the jetty before breakfast to look at the coral shelf, with live corals (blue, pink etc) + vari-coloured reef fish in great variety, also black sea-urchins with very long, slender spines. After breakfast I had a walk along the shore of the northern lagoon to see the birds. Egyptian Vultures, in all plumages from all-brown to white, were numerous + very tame. Kites, Ravens, Osprey, ringed- + Kentish Plovers, thick-Billed Plovers, Greenshanks, ? Green Sandpipers, Stints, a Reef-heron (all-dark-grey, white chin + bright yellow feet), Crested Larks, Finch-Larks + Grey Wagtails. After lunch on board, I went across the harbour + walked around the town, spending some time in the public gardens, which are recently laid out + practically shadeless. As it was grilling hot (105°-110°F) the lack of shade was very trying. In the gardens were Hoopoes,


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woodchat shrikes, Grey- + Yellow-wagtails, Kites, Vultures, Bulbuls, 2 large Sandpipers feeding on the lawns, many doves. A mallard (?) + a big flock of large sandpipers flew over the gardens. The town is developing, with wide streets, but immediately outside it desert conditions prevail. Back to the ship at 4.30 pm. when she turned + started off again. Outside we found a nice head wind, a great relief after a torrid day.


Sept. 24th                     Good, strong N. breeze making it fairly cool. Sea temperature 86°F. Daedalus Rock light (alternate long + short flashes) abeam at 10.45 p.m.


25th                              Passing “The Brothers” at 7.30 a.m. We were slowly overhauling the French mail boat, “Explorateur Grandidier”, which had got ahead of us. A few dolphins seen + some large fish jumping. Entering the Straits of Jubal at about 2pm. Great numbers of Gulls (L. leucophthalmus) in large close-packed groups on the water, which was oily-calm. A few Black-backed Gulls. I assisted Bassett in amputating his chameleon’s hind leg which had got broken. Passed the Sinai range during the afternoon, with the usual discussion as to whether the actual summit of Mt. Sinai is visible from the Gulf.


26th                              I got up at 3a.m. just as we dropped anchor off Suez. About 15 of the passengers were going by cars to Cairo, starting at 4.30 a.m., to rejoin the ship at Port Said.


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                                    The ship remained at anchor till midday, when at last a pilot came on board. A good many sharks were swimming round the ship, some of large size. A few leucophthalmus + Black-backed gulls were also around. We entered the Canal just after midday. Near Suez a great number of Egyptian Vultures were seen, soaring + on the ground. Some of the old birds appeared to be saffron-yellow instead of white – perhaps from reflection of light from the sand. Along the canal I saw several Stilts, Grey Herons, Kentish Plovers, Stints, + many crows with rather slender beaks, panting in the sun, which was extremely hot (98°F + higher in the shade). The breeze was like a furnace-blast + it was cooler under the lee. In the Great Bitter Lakes some dolphins were playing (rather hump-backed, yellowish-grey + beaked). In Lake Timsah, opposite to Ismailia, we anchored, with the French mailboat + the “Markhor”, at 6pm., to let several boats through, going Southward. We restarted at 8.50pm.


27th                              Arrived at Port Said at about 3 a.m. I went on deck at 4 a.m, but did not go ashore till 6.30 a.m., when I walked to the British Hospital to see Norah, hoping to take her out for a jaunt. I found her laid up in bed with a bad ear. Most unfortunate. I sat with her till 8 a.m. + then went to the Casino Hotel for breakfast + to the Post Office. I returned to the Hospital at 10.30, saw Matron + sat with Norah till 11.45, when I had to hurry on board, as I had quite casually learnt that the ship was to sail at


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                                    midday, instead of at 2pm., as had been stated when I came ashore. Actually it was nearly 3 pm. When she started. H.M.S. “Barham” had anchored alongside of the “Durham Castle” during the morning, + made a fine show. I had heard her saluting outside, + being saluted by the shore battery.


Sept. 28th                     Very calm + fine early, but there were rain=storms later in the day + at night. Black-backed gulls numerous at first. Some Swallows were flying around the ship, but, otherwise, little life was seen.


29.                               Crete in view all the morning. I got up at 6 a.m, when we had just passed the two Gavdo Islands. As soon as we had cleared the W. end of Crete, we caught a strong wind from the N., blowing out of the Aegean, + the sea was quite rough, the ship pitching + rolling, + wet decks prevailed. By 3pm. It had moderated a great deal + the sun came out. Swallows still keeping with the ship. No gulls. In the evening it was quite calm again. Swallows + martins were numerous. After dinner they were seen perched in rows, shoulder to shoulder, on wire stays, or in close-packed little groups on ledges + in the chart-house, within easy reach from the deck. They were fast asleep + were undisturbed by people moving about, or by noise, even when the ship’s quartette played jazz-music within two yards of them. A young shrike was also on board.


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Sept. 30th                     Up at 6 am. Rather cold, but fine. The Swallows + martins had gone. Calabrian coast sighted during the morning. Cape Spartivento passed about 3pm. Etna visible for a short while, but mostly cloud-covered. It was very fine as we passed Reggio + Messina. There was a very strong Charybdian swirl in the Strait, strongly felt by the ship. 3 Killer-Whales were in the Strait, which we passed through at about 6pm. Stromboli abeam at 8.30 pm. When the N. side of the volcano opened up, great jets of lava + cinders were being shot high into the air at intervals of 8-10 minutes, making a fine sight.


October 1st.                 Passing the Pontine Islands early in the morning. Very calm; light breeze from N.W. Towards evening we passed Giglio on starboard side, + later Monte Christo (to port) + Elba (c. 10 p.m) to starboard. Fine, but moonless night.


2nd                               Arrived at Genoa early in the morning. After breakfast Farmer, Bartlett + I chartered a car + motored along the coast, passing Sori, Nervi to Santa Margherita. Thence to Portofino, a very attractive little town on a small creek. From there we drove to Rapallo, where we lunched at a restaurant facing the harbour. After strolling about Rapallo we motored back to Genoa the same way. A very beautiful drive. Bartlett + I then walked about Genoa + returned on board at 7pm. We sailed after dinner, the town looking very beautiful with all its lights on.


[---FACING PAGE: Magazine cut-out about a drive along the Italian Riviera, round trip to Genoa.---]


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Oct. 3rd.                       Coasting along the Riviera, fairly close in. Very calm. We arrived at Marseilles at about 5 p.m. + tied up alongside of “Lazaret 5me.” Quay. I did not go ashore.


4th                                I went ashore in Marseilles at 9.30 a.m. + strolled around. I walked up to Nôtre Dâme de la Garde for the view, + back to the Cannebière, where I lunched at the ‘Univers’. Having gone dead lame, I took a taxi back to the ship at 4pm. + stayed on board.


5th.                               We cast off from the quay just after 7 a.m. Fairly strong wind + some pitching in the G. of Lyons.


6th.                               Off Mallorca at 5.30 a.m. Irica passed during the morning early. Cape San Martin in sight shortly after. Before breakfast we saw 6 or 7 waterspouts, some complete others incompletely formed. We altered course to avoid one of them which was dead ahead. The wind had lessened + the sea was calmer. Some showers of rain. Cape San Martin was passed at about noon, + Cape Palos during the afternoon.


7th.                               We passed Malaga in the morning + Gibraltar at 2.30 pm. Very calm + sunny. Centa + Tangier well seen, though there was some haze. “Juniper” reported missing. Great consternation.


8th.                               Off C. Sr. Vincent c.5a.m. Bonxies, Richardson’s Skuas. Blue Rorqual. Off Lisbon at noon. Quite smooth + somewhat hazy. At my request the Captain took us inside the Berlinga Ids. Through the wide chammel between them + the mainland. Great numbers of Maux + Greater Shearwaters + Gannets + dolphins. Also Skuas, Cormorants.


[---FACING PAGE: Sketch of a chameleon, labelled: “Juniper”.---]


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Oct. 9th                        Off Finisterre at noon. Very calm. Bird-life extremely abundant – Gannets, Shearwaters, Petrels very numerous; also numbers of Great Skuas and some Arctic + Pomarhine Skuas. It was moderately rough towards evening.


10th.                             Ushant abeam at about 6.30 p.m. No fog + the lights very clear. “Juniper” discovered in hiding. Ship’s cat exonerated.


11th.                             Off the Isle of Wight in the early morning. Passing Beachy Head at 1pm. Took pilot on board off Dungeness. Passed very close to entrance to Dover Harbour. Arrived at Tilbury + anchored there at about 10.30 pm.


12th.                             The ship went on to the East India docks and tied up in an inner dock at 7.30 a.m. Long delay in getting ashore + through the Customs which are badly organized. I raised a car + got to Paddington, catching the 11.15 a.m. train to Oxford.