South Africa, by Henry Balfour, 1910

Diaries of Henry BALFOUR (1863-1939), anthropologist and museum curator


South Africa 1910 – Miscellaneous loose letters and papers


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a letter to Balfour from The Owl Club in Cape Town, dated 13 July 1910.]


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a letter to Balfour from the Public Library in Johannesburg, dated 15 July 1910.]


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a newspaper clipping from the Sportsman, 2 August, a paragraph in which Balfour is mentioned is highlighted.]


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a booklet containing the list of passengers of the R.M.S. “Kildonan Castle” Union-Castle Line Royal Mail Service between England and South and East Africa. The log page is filled in by Balfour]


[---NEXT PAGE---]




Sat. 25 June                 Left Oxford by 9.10 train + came on by 10.25 from Reading (via Newbury + Winchester). Secured cabin 18 on board “Kildonan Castle”, met Lady Peck + her daughter who were seeing Peck + Benson off. Sailed soon after 4.30 p.m. Wind moderate, ship pitching somewhat in the evening. Before leaving S. Hampton, wrote to E. and to Lewis, Jo, Mother + K.B. + wired to Jo + E.


Sun. 26                        Rounded Ushant before 8.30 a.m. Moderate sea, slight motion which increased in the evening. Ships very numerous.


Mon. 27.                     Dull, drizzling morning, clearing later. Passed Finisterre before breakfast, but did not sight the cape. Sea slight.


Tues. 28                      Warm, sea slight, drifting sea mists + sun. Had long talk with Barry, the champion sculler + his trainer Phelps. Wrote to E. and to Jo-+-Lewis for posting in Funchal. Passed homeward mail (“Briton”) at about 9.0 pm.


Wed. 29                       Arrived Funchal at about 6 a.m. Cloudy day but fine. Ship coaling. Went ashore at 7.0 + walked out to Reid’s Palace Hotel where I breakfasted. Very nice hotel in splendid situation. Walked about Funchal + wired to Hoernle at Cape Town about lectures. Had received letter from him + later one from E. Came on board at 10.30. Sailed from Funchal at noon. Ship rolled a good deal in afternoon + evening.


Thurs. 30                    Off Teneriffe [sic] about 4.30 a.m. Peak not visible. Sighted Grand Canary 5.0. Day fine but fairly cool, slight sea. Flying fish beginning to be numerous.


[---FACING PAGE: photograph, labelled: “A Funchal Taxi.”---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Fri. July 1                   Dull, overcast day, slight sea, fairly cool but muggy. Storm petrels very numerous following ship. No flying fish till late afternoon when they were numerous in shoals. Dance after dinner.


Sat. 2                           5.45 a.m. sighted Cape Verde; 6.15 passed homeward mail (“Edinburgh Castle”); passed the Cape about 7.0, close in; wrecked steamer lying on the reef. Not much animal life off the cape except a few skuas, terns, storm-petrels, + sharks, but later plenty of life. Sharks very numerous (including some hammer heads), many whales (rorquals some of large size), dolphins in thousands towards evening, playing round the ship (in the morning they were busy fishing + did not notice the ship), several of the dolphins had one or two sucking-fish (? remora) attached to their sides far back, looking under water like long irregular gelatinous masses. Where two were attached they were one on either side, I think I saw 3 on one dolphin but am not sure. The remora looked about 20 or so inches long probably running to 2 feet. One large saw-fish reported. Portuguese men-o-war numerous in early morning. The skuas looked like Richardsons. Saw no Caspian terns. Morning fine but rain through heavy rain storms in afternoon + evening. Wind strong in evening, sea broken but not really rough.


[---FACING PAGE: Very faint sketches of dolphins with remora attached.---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Sun. 3rd.                       No incident, sea calm, fairly warm, very little life, except storm petrels + flying fish.


Mon. 4th.                     ditto, warmer. concert on promenade deck in evening.


Tues. 5th.                     [No entry for this date.]


Wed. 6th.                      Sports


Thurs. 7th.                   Sports


Friday 8th.                   Beginning to pick up birds again as we approach the coast. Prions fairly numerous, Concert in saloon in evening.


Sat. 9th.                        Cooler, a few mollymawks + many prions, but very little else.


Sun.10th.                      Mollymawks more numerous (yellow billed A.), a few D. Exulans (immature), Cape Hens + prions. Fair weather. Wrote to E., Jo + Lewis, Mother + Shelford.


Mon. 11th.                   Same birds more numerous. Bright day, slight breeze, colder in afternoon.


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a booklet entitled: “R.M.S. Kildonan Castle” Souvenir of the voyage.---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Tues. 12                      Arrived in Table Bay at about 4 a.m., + anchored inside the breakwater as it was quite dark though clear. Ran into the docks at 7.0. Table Mountain quite clear + weather fine but cold. Breakfast on board. At 8.30 Prof. Hoernlé came on board + later Dr. Peringuey. Went ashore with them + drove to the Civil Service Club where I was to stay as a guest. Luggage was cleared through the Customs by Harrison + Co. Was interviewed by “Cape Times” representative after lunch. Posted letters to E. + others.


Wed. 13                       Heavy cold in head + chest. After breakfast was interviewed by “Cape Argus” representative, + photographed for same paper. Horrid bore. Saw 11.30 train to Johannesburg off + said goodbye to Cooke + Miss Ladds. Went to Museum before + after lunch to talk to Peringuey. Wrote to E. Day wet at intervals.


Thurs. 14.                   Preparing lectures most of the day. Dined with the “Mountain Club”, (Mr. Amphlett in chair). Sat next to Mrs. Amphlett + Hoernlé. Fine clear day.


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is the itinerary and list of South African Lectures to be delivered by Balfour July – August 1910.]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Friday 15th.                 First lecture in Dutch Reformed Church Hall Lord de Villiers in chair. Very fair audience, apparently appreciative. Fine clear day. In afternoon went out to Sea Point.


Sat. 16                         Still fine, rather muggy + warm. Went to Museum in afternoon, + later had stroll along lower slopes of the mountain. Spent several hours arranging lectures + slides.


Sun. 17                        Still fine. The mountain has been clear continuously. In afternoon went to Wynberg to tea with Prof. + Mrs. Beattie (St. John, Main Road, Wynberg) + stayed to supper. Prof. Hoernlé, Mr. + Mrs. Kanthack (irrigation deput), Prof + Mrs. Pearson (Botany at the S.A. College) + Mr. Hall were there. Had a long walk through the Park Wynberg between tea + dinner. Very hot sultry day.


Mon. 18                      Drenching rain storms. Second lecture (African Musical Insts.) in Dutch Reform Church Hall. Smaller attendance on account of rain. the Hon - - Schreiner took the chair + Prof. Beattie proposed vote of thanks. Drew £50 from Standard Bank. Booked passage in Walmer Castle to Durban [4 guineas], journey to be broken at Algoa Bay.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Thursday 19               Packed. Went to see Peringuey, Lunched with Bishop Cameron. – Rev. Michael H.M. Wood (Scholar of Trinity in 1883) + now librarian + warden of the Church House, 61 Burg Str. Cape Town. Looked over some of Bishop Callaway’s Mss. on Native Folk lore etc. Went on board “Walmer Castle” about 11 p.m. Excellent cabin (No.6) on promenade deck. Mons. Paquot a fellow passenger again.


Wed. 20                       Under weight by about 7.30 am. Fine day + moderate sea as far as Cape Agulhas after which it calmed steadily down. Saw hundreds of Cape Hens, and Southern Gannets, also many penguins (S. Demersus), prions, terns, skuas, mollymawks (D. Melanophrys + chlororhynchus), a few dolphins. Glorious sunset + a very good “green flash”.


Thurs. 21                    Fine + calm, entered Algoa Bay at about 8.30. Passing two humpback whales near the lighthouse. Dominican gulls in great quantity. Went ashore in the first tug, + was met on the jetty by several members of the committee, Mr. Brown (Secretary) + Mr. Cowie (Chairman) etc. Was driven to the Port Elizabeth Club + given a room there.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Had a walk in the Park in morning, lunched at Club + got lecture ready. Went to Museum to see Mr. Fitzsymonds. Gave first lecture in Town Hall (“Archaeol. + Ethnol.”), very good audience + excellent lantern. Afterwards went to an “at home” at the ladies college (Miss Stevenson, principal) + met many Port Elizabeth people. Very pleasant evening.


Friday 22                    Went to Museum for Mr. Fitzsimons + we took tram southwards along the coast to look at the “Strandlooper” Kitchen middens which are very extensive. In afternoon had a run with Dr. Brock in his car to the Swartkop River, stopping at the Mineral Spring on the way + sampling the water which rises from a boring of about 1/4 mile deep, very hot. At Swartkop river saw grey heron, Great White heron, whimbrel (?), little stints (?), black + white Kingfisher etc. After dinner went to lecture by Dr. Duerden (of Grahamstown) on Ostriches.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Saturday 23                 Went in morning to D. + Ebdeus big store + was shown over it by Mr. Anderson (senior partner) + Mr. Cowie. Mr. Fred Holland showed me the feather department, the various grades of ostrich feathers + their sorting.

                                    Joined Mr. Holland + Dr. + Mrs. Duerden at station + went by 2.10 train to Despatch to Mr. Holland’s house. Went all over Mr. Holland’s ostrich farm + saw various types of birds + some nesting, cock birds sitting for the most part. Also saw over the garden + orchards. Had supper there with Mr. + Mrs. Holland, Mrs. Bennett + Miss Pettit (sisters of Mrs. Holland) + the Duerdens, caught 7.10 train back. Most interesting day. Wild birds seen included hoopoe, golden oriole, flock of blue cranes, 2 Secretary birds.


Sunday 24.                  Up at 6.20 am + started at about 7 with Mrs. Cowie, Brown + Macfarlane in cape-cart + four to drive to Cadle’s (about 24 miles), outspanned at “Green Bushes” for breakfast (c.12 miles), then on to Cadle’s hotel, arriving at 11.30, walking a little of the way + gathering heather which


[---NEXT PAGE---]


is magnificent; had walk down river gorge, very beautiful, saw some dassies on the rocks, also traces of iguanas (varanus). Lunched at hotel + met Mrs. Armstrong, Griffiths + Elliot who had motored out. Walked up hill nearby for the view, then had tea + started back at about 5 pm, soon got dark but fine starlit night. Outspanned again at “Green Bushes” + had supper + got back to Club about 9.30. Delightful day.

                                    Birds seen included, hammerkops (scopus umbretta), buzzard or small eagle; red-winged spreeuws + “bee-eaters” (drongo shrikes, all black), these + the sprues were bathing by flying down into the water + rising again immediately; Kingfishers of a kind which is insectivorous + does not fish or enter the water, Kestrel, francolin (heard only);

                                    Also saw some small buck (? Duiker).


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Monday 25                 Wrote to E. + sent papers. Made notes etc for lectures during day.

                                    Gave second lecture (“African problems) in evening. Good audience. Mr. Scully (Chief magistrate) in the chair.


Tues. 26                      Visited St. George’s Park with the Curator, Mr. Butters [dotted line to facing page with text: “Mr. J. T. Butters, Superintendent of Parks, P.E.”] – Lunched with Mr. + Mrs. Anderson + went drive with Mr. A. to Skoenmakers Kop along the coast. Very fine sight. Dinner given by Mr. Cowie in my honour. Dr. Brock, Mr. Brown, Mr. Macintosh, Mr. Holland, Mr. Macfarlane, Mr. Fitzsimons also present.


Wed.                            Looked up Mr. F. H. Bennett (of Guthrie + Co), + went to Museum + to the Library to see 4 pictures by [illegible], two of them being of the Victoria Falls.

                                    Called on Mr. Scully + heard some Kaffir Music played by Mrs. Scully.

                                    After lunch went for run in motor car with Dr. + Mrs. Brock + Mrs. Ray, to Kragga Kama, a country house with what was once a fine garden.

                                    Saw secretary birds, white stock, hammerkops. Glossy starlings, sunbirds, buzzards, a gray falcon etc.

                                    3rd Lecture in evening (Decorative Art)—Mr. Cowie presiding. Quite successful.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Thurs. 28                    Took the 8.45 a.m. train for Grahamstown. Was seen off by Cowie, Brown, Scully + Fitzsimons. Travelled with Besters (of Colesburg) as far as Alicedale. Passed through the Addo Bush, via Mimosa + Bellevue, mounting considerably. Changed trains + lunched at Alicedale. Arrived at Grahamstown at about 4.30. Met by Duerden + driven by him to Dr. Schönland’s house. After tea went with Duerden to see his ostrich farm. After dinner a number of the St. Andrews College Staff came round to the house. Mr. Sampson, Prof. Corry, Prof. Matthews, Schwartz (Geology), Lord (Philosophy) + others.


Friday, 29                   After breakfast did some writing + went to see Archdeacon Woodroofe who gave me some native things + took me to see Mr. Gowie’s collection of natural history trophies + native objects. In afternoon saw Mr. Woodroofe again + then went to see the Editor of the “Journal” + later to the Albany Museum.

                                    Gave first lecture (“S. African problems”) in the Town Hall, which was packed, between 500 + 600. Went off very well. Afterwards the Mayor, Mr. Fichat held a large reception in the Town Hall in my honour.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Sat. 30.                        Wrote till 10, went to G.P.O. + got wire from E. Then went over Rhodes College + the Museum with Schönland. In afternoon the Mayor, Mr. Fitchat, fetched Schönland + me + we drove to Glen Craig Farm, a few miles away + walked down to Botha’s river to visit some Bushman rock shelters, of which we saw several with monochrome (red) paintings of men + animals, some well preserved, but many weathered away or injured. I picked up some small scrapers + flakes + two rubbing stones, etc. at these sites. Had tea at the farm with Mrs. Pennell. Day very fine + windless.

                                    Wrote lecture after dinner.

                                    (During the drive saw 2 secretary birds, many black + white plovers, fiscal shrikes, a kestrel (?) hare + meerkats etc.


Sun. 31.                       Went with Schwartz and Lord (professor at Rhodes Coll.) by 9 a.m. train to Cold Springs station, + walked from there about a mile to a Bushman rock shelter at the top of a wooded Kloof. Some monochrome (red) paintings remain on the rocks, showing


[---NEXT PAGE---]


figures of people + animals; some still quite clear but many obliterated by smoke of recent camping fires. This seems to have been probably a look out for game, rather than a residence, + I found few traces of stone implements (a hammer-stone, rough scrapers + flakes). A small clear stream runs past the rock shelter which overlooks a wide extent of country. We lunched off Koodoo meat + guinea fowl etc provided by Lord. Afterwards we went down through the Kloof which contains many tree ferns + has a tropical aspect with llianas everywhere. We walked by to Cold Springs + waited about 3/4 hour for the train, getting back to Grahamstown at 4.0 p.m. Had tea at Schwartz’s house with Mrs. Schwartz.

                                    In evening Duerden fetched me in his trap to go to supper at his house. Raining fairly hard. Mrs. van Heist + Miss Leckington were there also. Had some music.

                                    The day was cold + wetish, by evening it rained hard + was extremely unpleasant.

                                    Wrote to E.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Mon. Aug. 1               Wrote all the morning, + took Ms. notes to the editor of “The Journal”. Bought a railway rug. In afternoon Mrs. Schönland had an “at home” for people to meet me + a number turned up including the Bishop of Grahamstown, an old Exeter College man.

                                    In evening I gave my second Grahamstown lecture (on “Environment”) to a very good audience, not so large as Friday’s as the weather was bad + very cold + the St. Andrews College student could not turn up. Throat rather tricky + I was not satisfied with lecture, though it seemed to be appreciated.


Tues. 2                        Wrote some letters + called on Archdeacon Woodroofe in morning. Met Rev. E.C. West who had in his sermon of last Sunday introduced references to my work upon the Antiquity of Man in S. Africa. His main theme was “Eternity”. He also slated the adults of Grahamstown for not turning up at my lectures in greater force. I had had excellent audiences all the same. In afternoon went for a walk through woods to South of Grahamstown + called on the Mayor who was out. Arranged for box of curios to be sent to Peringuey to wait my arrival in Cape Town. Duerden came round to


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Schönland’s to say goodbye. Left by the 8.35 p.m. train for E. London, travelling in a through compartment with Mr. Parr of P. Elizabeth, a very agreable man. Did not sleep much that night which was cold. Reached Cookhouse early next morning.


Wed. 3                         Had breakfast at Cookhouse station. Country fine during the morning; passed through an ostrich farming + sheep + goat grazing country, in a hilly region. A great deal of snow lying on the higher mountains to the north. Brilliant day + warm. Saw bushbuck, vultures (black-+ white), Korhaan, red legged plovers, grey heron. Great numbers of Kestrels of large size, etc. At Fort Beaufort where train arrived at about 1.15 p.m. (nearly 17 hours of travel) I was still within about 40 miles of Grahamstown in a bee line! After this the country becomes bare + open in places but between Alice + Red Hill the aloes form a blaze of colour. Train 40 minutes late at King Williamstown. Dined at Blaney station at about 8.0. Arrived at E. London at 9.45 p.m. half an hour late. Met Mr. W. H. Fuller + Mr. John Wood. Drove to Mr. Fuller’s house to be his guest. Charming house overlooking the harbour + sea.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Thurs. 4                      In morning went to G.P.O. + received letters from home + telegram from E. + was driven about E. London with Mr. + Mrs. Fuller. Through the Park + down to the beach. Saw the “Clan Fergusson” enter the harbour. Lovely windless day. In afternoon Mr. John Wood + Mr. Dodd took me for a walk to see the “Strandlooper” shell deposits; afterwards we crossed the Buffalo R. in ferry + walked along coast on other side looking for ancient remains. Returned by the bridge.

                                    In evening gave lecture (on “African Problems”) to a good audience, Mr. Fuller presiding.


Friday 5                      Had a long day with Mr. John Wood at the Nahun River some miles to E. of E. London. We drove part of the way to the river, then walked examining shell heaps on the way. Were rowed across Nahun R. and hunted for stone impl. on the sandy expanses between Mr. Goddard’s farm + the sea. There seems to have been a regular factory of implements there, but finished examples seem to be very rare. Had tea with the Goddards. After recrossing the Nahun we came back to E. London by the beach from “Bats’ Cave”, getting home at 6.30.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Sat. 6.                          Went in the town with Mrs. Fuller, + booked passage to Durban in the “Saxon”. After lunch drove down to quay + went on board the tug “Stork”. Mr. Wood seeing me off. Large number of passengers for the “Saxon”, bit of a swell running + it took 25 minutes to get the passengers on board with the derrick basket. Had Cabin 43 to myself, an inner cabin but not bad. Started about 4.30 a moderate sea running, ship rolling somewhat but not badly.


Sun. 7                          Fresh breeze blowing, rounded the Bluff at 1.30 p.m., + steamed into harbour past the Norwegian whaling station, where 4 typical Scandinavian whalers were lying. Came alongside quay at 2.0. Met by Dr. S. G. Campbell + after some delay at custom house was driven by him to his house in Musgrave Road. Charming house with very nice garden on the Berea. After tea I walked down to the Town Hall + to the embankment + returned by tram.

                                    In evening several people came in to meet me, Mr. Churchill, Mr. Evans, Mr. King + others including some ladies


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a postcard showing the Union-Castle Line Royal Mail Steamer “Saxon” (12385 tons).]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Mon. 8.                       Strolled about the town + down to the beach after getting the house mail + E’s telegram. Also walked along the embankment. Lunched at Club with Campbell + met several men—Mr. Greenacre (late Mayor), Mr. Churchill etc. Wrote lecture notes in afternoon. Wired to E. Gave first Durban lecture in on[e?] of the rooms at the Town Hall in the evening (“Evolution in Arts + Industries”) audience of 300 or so. D. Campbell in the chair.


Tues. 9.                       Went to see Mr. Millar’s collection of natural history (especially game animals birds + lepidoptera), very interesting. Mr. Millar a very good authority on habits. Later went with binoculars along embankment to see what birds there were at low tide [Curlew, whimbrel, grey plover (?), little egrets, grey heron, dominican gull, greenshanks]. Lunched with Mr. Greenacre at the Club to meet Dr. Jamieson, Mr. Smartt + other politicians. Visited Museum afterwards, much improved in new quarters in Town Hall. Went to Point + seeing that a Humpback whale had been taken, went across to the Bluff to the Whaling Station, but got there


[---NEXT PAGE---]


just too late as the whale was carried off on the railway to the cutting up sheds round the other side of the Bluff, too far to reach in the time. Looked at the 4 Norwegian whaling steamers. Dined at the Club in company with Dr. Jamieson, Mr. Smartt, Mr. Fletcher (son of the vicar of Carfax, Oxford, + brother of Mrs. Bertie Rogers of Clifton), Dr. Campbell + others + after dinner went with them to the Town Hall for a great political meeting. Huge Town Hall absolutely packed. Dr. Jim + Mr. Smartt both made excellent speeches on Unionist side, + the former spoke freely + candidly about the “Raid”. I had a seat on the platform immediately behind the speakers. The gathering was an enthusiastic one.


Wed. 10.                      Visited Botanical Gardens in the morning saw a white eyebrowed lark-heeled cuckoo (Centropus Burchelli) + lunched at the Club with Mr. Collins. Wrote letters afterwards + went down to Point to see if any whales had come in. The whalers were all outside + I saw one fire her harpoon, but not having my glasses, could not see if she got into a whale, + had to hurry back for early dinner at Campbell’s house. Mr. Armstrong + Miss Buckland (sister of Buckland of Cains, Cambridge) came to dinner.


[---FACING PAGE: Two postcards, one of “South African Riksha Boys” and the other of “Typical South African Riksha Boys”.---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Lectured at Town Hall in evening (on “African problems”), very fair audience. Mr. Evans took the chair.


Thurs. 11                    Packed up. Went down to the Club + wrote letters. Took the 12.25 p.m. train for P.Martizburg. Campbell saw me off + Dr. Jamieson + others were seeing Dr. Smartt off. I travelled in the latter’s compartment instead of my own which was rather full. Lunched on board with Dr. Smartt. Arrived at Martizburg at 4.20 pm. Met by Dr. Hyslop, Mrs. Bennett, Dr. Fraser + Mr. Birdsey. Drove with Dr. Hyslop to his house “Mountain View”, at the Natal Government Asylum, of which he is the head. Nice house in grounds which are being fairly well laid out, overlooking Maritzburg.


Fri. 12                         Looked round portion of Asylum. Drove down to the town + went to the Museum + was taken round by the curator, Dr. Warren. Fine day without wind, but turning to rain + overcast in afternoon. Dr. Fraser took Dr. Hyslop + me in his motor to “The Huts” a country refuge of Dr. Hyslop, finely situated upon high ground. Several local men came to dinner + came on to my lecture in the Y.M.C.A. hall (“African Problems”) fair audience, but not large as several events were on same night.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Sat. 13                         Wrote to E., Jo + Min + others, + visited the Museum in the morning. After lunch drove to the Park with Dr. Hyslop + watched some football. Went back to Museum to make some sketches of musical instruments. Dr. + Mrs. Walkins Pitchford came to dinner + spent the evening.


Sun. 14                        Started with Dr. Fraser + Dr. Hyslop in the former’s car (Gladiator) at 10.50 for Howick (c.15 miles), bad road most of the way, but fine views, arrived at Howick about 12.15. Went down to see the Howick Fall which is very fine + picturesque. A sheer vertical fall over a basaltic cliff. Lunched at the hotel. After lunch Fraser + I went down the Kloof to the bottom of the fall. Started back at 2.40 + arrived at the Asylum at 4.0. Dr. Hyslop went away to a shooting party. Packed up + at 7.0 I was driven down to Dr. Fraser’s house for supper where I met Dr. Warren + Dr. Wood. Caught the 11.5 p.m. train for Harrismith.


[---FACING PAGE: Sketch of Balfour dressed as a musketeer on a stage, labelled: “Lecturing in the Opera House, Pretoria – as it should have been. Tues. 23 Aug..”---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Mon. 15.                     Arrived at Ladysmith about 6 a.m. after a bad + sleepless night in a very jolty train (the “Kaffir Mail”). Just getting light. Fine day. Bulwana standing out well. Went over Van Reenen’s Pass in magnificent scenery with very fine view over Natal, though somewhat hazy. Part of the crawl up the pass is done on a zigzag course with reversing stations. Arrived at Harrismith at 11.25 am. in a blinding duststorm which continued during the day. Met by the Mayor, Mr. Bayne (sec), Rev.-Brown. Went to the Royal Hotel near station. At 2.30 went to the Town Hall + declared the New Museum open, a number of local people being present, the Mayor presiding. Had tea with Rev.- + Mrs. Brown. (Mr. Brown was a scholar of Exeter Coll.) In evening lectured in the Town Hall to a very fair audience, the Mayor presiding. Lecture was rather over the heads of the audience unfortunately (“Anthropology as a Science + Academic Study). Went round to Club afterwards with Dr. E.F.B. Wilson. Got letters from E. etc in afternoon.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Tues. 16.                     Went to breakfast with Dr. Wilson + drove with him out to Wessels farm, to part occupied by Mr. Philipson, to see a good Bushman rock-shelter, with some very fine paintings, eland + other buck, many human figures some with animal heads etc. The paintings very numerous, partly defaced, some in two or three colours, others monochrome (red), cases of superposed designs. Mr. Philipson promised to take photographs + send them to me. The rock shelter is about 4 miles from Harrismith + stands a little away from the base of a high rock Kopje. Took the 11.45 am train for Bloemfontein, travelled with Mr. Tate (bank manager) + the Surgeon at the Bloemfontein Hospital. Towards sunset scenery very fine amongst the mountains of Zand R. district between Bethlehem + Ficksburg. Spent night on board train.


Wed. 17                       Arrived at Bloemfontein at 6.20 a.m. Had to wait nearly 3/4 hour for luggage. Drove to the house of the Administrator (Dr. A.E.W. Ramsbottom) where I was to stay. Wrote several letters in the morning + walked to top of Signal hill with Mrs. Ramsbottom. In afternoon visited Grey College + the school + met Mr. Rudge + Mr. Leach.

                                    In evening Mr. Tate came round to dinner.


[---FACING PAGE: Sketch, labelled: “Bushman painting. Wessel’s farm, nr. Harrismith.”---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Thurs. 18                    Drove to the town with Mr. Ramsbottom, called on Mr. Reginald Streeten (barrister, nephew of Mrs. Hoole) + he came with me to the Museum. Museum very poor being practically unarranged, an awful jumble. Got telegram from E. at G.P.O.. Drove round “the mountain” with Mrs. R. Arranged details for lecture at Town Hall. The arrangements very primitive on a stage, with scenery. Everything improvised. Gave lecture on “Evolution in Arts etc” in evening to a very fair audience. Light for lantern went out in the middle, but no harm done. The Administrator was in the chair.


Fri. 19.                        Caught the 9.30 train for Kimberley. My luggage only just got to the station in time as cab did not turn up. Station master kept train back a few minutes + Dr. Ramsbottom just succeeded in getting the things in in time. Both Dr. + Mrs. R. saw me off. Scenery along the line monotonous plains, parched up. Passed Paardeburg on the way. Arrived at Kimberley at 3.55 (an hour late). Met by Dr. Sutton + Miss Wilman + went to the Museum with the latter (curator). Went to the Belgrave Hotel where I was the guest of the Directors of DeBeers. Very nice bedroom + sitting room. A number of the directors


[---NEXT PAGE---]


entertained me at dinner. Mr. Francis Oats (chairman of the directors) presiding. Motored to Town Hall. Gave lecture on “African Problems” to good audience. Apparently appreciated. Lantern worked very badly + refused at intervals, but otherwise the evening was successful.


Sat. 20.                        Had breakfast with Mr. Giles Oats + Miss Oats. Motored to Museum + spent morning there under Miss Wilman’s guidance. Saw very fine collection of Bushman rock engravings, some of them masterpieces. After lunch with Mr. Oats, started in two motors for Nooitgedacht on the Vaal River, at Mr. Child’s farm, about 25 miles from Kimberley [Mr. Oates, Miss Oats + Mr. G. Oats, Mr. Child, Miss Wilman + Mr Oppenheim all of the party]. Ran past Mr. Child’s farm house + struck the river further down. Examined the upper levels for stone implements which are very numerous, + also there are a great many in the gravels near the present level of the Vaal, but overlaid by 12-14 ft of sand (apparently alluvial). Should like to revisit the spot. Seems like an ancient factory. Main rock in diabase + roches moutonnées occur near the


[---NEXT PAGE---]


farm house, showing very marked glacial erosion + scratching. The second motor broke down + Mr. G. Oats + Miss Oats remained behind with it. The rest motored back to Kimberley. Along the road saw 2 good herds of spring-buck near the farm fences on either side. Lots of ground squirrels (“meerkats”) also seen. Also colies, bush-shrikes, bulbuls, finks etc. Packed hurriedly + caught the 7.15 pm for Kimberley Johannesburg.


Sun. 21.                       Arrived at Jo’burg at 10.30 a.m. Met by Mr. Cadenhead + Mr. Marcus with a motor + was taken to Mr. Pim’s house, “Timewell,” in Park Town, where staying a night or two. Charming house with splendid view. Fine collection of etchings + engravings. Mr. Kelsey (barrister) came to lunch. Late in afternoon Mr. Pim took me over Lionel Philips’ new grounds + to see the new house which is very beautiful + in excellent taste, combining Dutch + Italian styles. Wrote to E. + Lewis.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Mon. 22                      Wrote letters + arranged lecture. Lunched at Rand Club with Mr. Pim (Mr.s Taberer, late of Keble Coll., Duncan + Morrison also present). Had talk with Taberer afterwards. Went to see Mr. Cadenhead at the Public Library, + to the University College Hall to arrange lecture details. Entertained at dinner at the Carlton Hotel by the Mayor, Mr. Graumann, (Mr. Pim, Mr. Reunert, Mr. Foote, Mr. Cadenhead + Mr. Lehfeldt also present). Excellent dinner but very loud band. All came on to my lecture on Archael. + Ethnol. About 400 in audience, very good considering that electioneering is in full swing + politics dominate the scene. The Mayor presided.


Tues. 23.                     Went to the Rand Club. Caught 12.20 train to Pretoria, arrived 2.5 pm. Drove to the Bishops house. Both Bishop + Mrs. Furse away. Took possession pending return of Mrs. Furse who arrived in evening. Went to see Museum + was taken round it + also the Zoo by Dr. Gunning the Curator of both. Zoo excellent, much improved. Lectured in evening in the Opera House from the stage. Sir Darcy Fitzpatrick in the chair. Lantern too far away, the disc overlapping the screen badly. Moderate audience.


[---FACING PAGE: Photograph of Sir Percy Fitzpatrick.---]


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a printed sheet on Balfour’s lecture series in Pretoria.]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Wed. 24.                      Returned to Jo’burg by 10.45 train, + drove to Mr. Theo Reunert’s house, “Windybrow”, Pieterson Street, wrote some letters in afternoon. Lectured in evening on “Evolution” to rather smaller audience than last time. Lecture appreciated. Mr. Justice Ward in the chair.


Thurs. 25.                   Went to Club in morning + looked at books in the library. Spent afternoon at the native compound at Robinson Deep Mine, with Dr. G.A. Turner. Looked at numbers of natives from various parts, some very well decorated with Keloid scars. Went all round the compound hospital wards. Saw a native decorating gourds with white beads. Very ingenious + good patterns. Was given two gourds. Brought away Dr. Turner’s Ms. notes to look over. Very interesting afternoon.

                                    Some people came to dinner at the Reunerts in the evening (Mrs. + Miss Lake etc.)


Friday 26.                   Went to Club + to see Cadenhead. Was sketched for the “Sunday Times”, met Dr. Schultz at the Club.

                                    Lectured in evening on “African Problems”, fair audience. Mr. Howard Pim in chair.


[---FACING PAGE: Photograph of Theodore Reunert.---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Sat. 27.                        Went to the Zoo in the morning. Sorted papers in afternoon + went through the Park to the Athenaeum Club. Had talk with Cadenhead + Turner. Mr. Strangman (French master at a school) dined at the Reunerts. Talked about art most of evening.


Sun. 28.                       Dr. Turner fetched me + we went down to the native compound + looked at natives + their tribal + other scars + tattooings. Saw Turner try to inject antimeningitis serum into spinal column of a sick native, who struggled so that operation could not be performed. Lunched at Turner’s house with T. + Mrs. T. + three more or less amusing + unruly children ([male][male][female]). Was given a number of photographs of natives some bark cloth + an arrow from Inhambane district. Mrs. Lake came to dinner at the Reunerts.

                                    Wrote to E., Jo + mother.


Mon. 29.                     Went to Club + did some shopping in morning + again to Club library in afternoon. Beastly day with wind + clouds of dust, very sultry + oppressive. Dined with Mr. Guy Brunton at “Amenti”, Fyfe Avenue. (Dr. Lehfeldt also there). Lectured on “Environment”, Archdeacon Sinclair Seaton (late of Ch. Ch. in chair). Went to Mrs. Lake’s house afterwards.


[---FACING PAGE: Profile sketch of “Dr. J. Schultze” at the “Rand Club, Johannesburg”.---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Tues. 30.                     Went to Pretoria by 12.20 train + drove to Bishop Furse’s house. Had talk with Bishop + then drove with Mrs. Furse to Museum where I had talk with Dr. Gunning + afterwards I went round the Zoo. Lectured that night in Opera House on African Problems (having changed the lecture). Furse created at diversion in middle of lecture by suddenly crashing through his seat in front row of stalls. I found it hard to continue with a “straightface.” Walked back with the Furses. Talked with the Bishop until midnight.


Wed. 31.                      Up early to catch 8.5 a.m. train, the Bishop coming with me to Jo’burg. Drove to the Reunerts. Wrote to mother + Lewis. Went out to the Country Club to lunch with Dr. Lehfeldt. Lady Kathleen Villiers and Mrs. Lycett making up the party. Very pleasant out there. Peach + other blossoms well out.

Met Mr. Vaughan on a tram + went out with him to his house in Yeoville to see Mrs. Vaughan.

Lectured in evening on African Musical instruments. Fair audience. The Chief Rabbi, Dr. Hertz, in the chair.


[---FACING PAGE: Three sketches, labelled: “Crowned Crane”; “Adult Gnu (Brindled).”; “Juv.”---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Thurs. Sept. 1.            Did some shopping + went to the Carlton Hotel to lunch with Mr. Geoffrey Robinson (late of Magdalen, Editor of the “Star” + correspondent of the London “Times”). The Unionist candidate for Jeppe constituency, Mr. Feetham, also there. Discussed article for special number of the “Times” with Mr. Robinson + agreed to write about 5000 words. Met Mr. Lionel Phillips at the Hotel + Mr. Perry.

                                    Later in the afternoon was fetched by Mr. Eales in Mr. Cullen’s car + run over to Modderfontein. Stayed at Mr. Cullen’s house which is delightfully situated + very nice. Had stroll round with Cullen + Eales. In evening gave lecture on “Evolution” in the Club. Audience not very large, owing to there being another meeting. Mr. Cullen occupied the chair.


Fri. 2                           Drove to the Dynamite factory + was shown the process of making nitroglycerine, the process of mixing glycerine with nitric + sulphuric acids. Also the packing of blasting gelatine. Very finely equipped factory with enormous output. Was run back in Mr. Cullen’s car to Jo’burg before lunch.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


In afternoon went to the Native Pass Office to find H.S. Cooke, but eventually found him at his office in the Caledonian Building + had a talk with him. Went to the Club + wrote letters.

                                    Lectured in evening on “Art”. Last lecture of Johannesburg series. Mr. Reunert in the chair. Vote of thanks moved by Mr. Reunert + seconded by Dr. Davis. Replied + advocated Government Grant for research.


Sept. 3                         Went to see Mr. Howard Pim in morning, + to see General Smuts by appointment. He was sympathetic with scheme of Government Grant in aid of research + promised to do what he could to advance it. Had interesting talk with him. Just missed General Botha. Went to see Mr. Geoffrey Robinson at the “Star” office + he motored me back to the Reunerts. Got letter from Government House, Pretoria, inviting me to stay there on Tuesday as guest of H.E. the Governor General. In afternoon went with Dr. Lehfeldt to tea with Lady Kathleen Villiers. Quaint + picturesque house built in round rooms connected together + thatched, the thatch showing inside. After dinner motored with the Reunerts + Miss G. Rogers to the Observatory where we looked at stars with the director, Mr. Innes.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Sun. 4                          Wrote to E. + others. Went to lunch with Mr. + Mrs. Lionel Phillips at “Hohenheim”, Park Town. Large luncheon party (Miss Phillips, Lady Villiers, Mr. Pennant, Mr. Cadenhead, Mr. G. Robinson etc etc). Sat next to Mrs. Phillips. After lunch went with the Phillips to see over their new house “Arcadia” + had tea in the garden there. After this went with Mr. G. Robinson to his house + saw Mr. Feetham (U. candidate for Jeppe). Robinson motored me to 3 Bruce Street, Hillbrow, where I called on Mr. + Mrs. J. Beaumont Ladds. Called also on Mrs. G. Brunton (“Amenti”, Fyfe Avenue) who was out.

                                    Archdeacon Seaton dined at the Reunert’s.


Mon. 5                        Saw Cadenhead + received cheque for £100 on account. Took 4.15 train to Krugersdorp, + went to Varley’s hotel. Strolled about the town for an hour + then changed in time for dinner given by the Mayor (Councillor J.C. Stegmann) at the hotel. Abe Bailey, Mr. McNab + a number of other local lights also were guests. All came over to the Town Hall for the lecture on “African Problems”. Moderate audience, but appreciative. Dog walked onto the platform while I was discussing Bushman paintings + created diversion. After lecture I met Carlisle (late of Worcester coll. + O.F.C.) now curate in Krugersdorp + went with him + a local magistrate (Mr. Bangley) to have a chat. Returned to Jo’burg by 10.40 train.


[---FACING PAGE: Sketch of Balfour lecturing and pointing to a slide of a Bushman painting of a buck, a dog in foreground, labelled: “Unsolicited proof of the realism of Bushman paintings – Krugersdorp, Sept. 5, 1910.”---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Tues. 6.                       Packed. Left by 12.20 train for Pretoria. Met by car from Government House. Went first to the Furse’s + met Miss Stow (daughter of the Geologist + Anthropologist), then to Government House where I was met by Capt. Paget, A.D.C. + introduced to Lady Gladstone + Miss Dorothy Drew. Taken by Lady G. to see the Governor General who was playing tennis. After watching the tennis Lady Gladstone took me all round the gardens which are very nice. Splendid view from terrace. Mrs. der Val (Gen. Botha’s daughter came to call, + sang very well. Tea on the terrace. Discussed research endowment with Lord Gladstone who was quite sympathetic. Was taken by Mr. Stanley (late of Balliol) to dine early at the Club. Capt. Ravenhill + Mr. _____ [left blank] also there. Went on to Opera House + gave the last lecture of my tour on “Art”. Very cordially received. Judge Mason in the chair. Retuned in the car to Government House + played billiards with Mr. Stanley + sat up talking to Capt. Paget. Delighted with Government House + with the kindness + geniality of the Gladstones.


[---FACING PAGE: Photographs of “Miss Dorothy Drew” and “Capt. F.W. Parish, A.D.C. engaged to Miss Drew.”---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Wed. 7                         Up early + breakfasted in my room. Drove down in the Government House motor (Wolseley) to station + caught the 8.5 for Jo’burg. Dull, cloudy morning. Collected luggage at Jo’burg station + was seen off by the 10 a.m. Zambesi Express (save the mark!) by Reunert, Cadenhead + Turner. Excellent compartment reserved for me by Mr. W.W. Hoy (Chief traffic manager, Jo’burg). Cool travelling, country uninteresting but saw great quantities of Korhaan (two kinds) + plover (wattled + spur-winged), a few francolin. Also saw numbers of springbok in groups of 3 to 25, especially near Makessie + some duiker (both grey + red) + steinbok. Numbers of meerkats. Met Hutt (of B.N.C.) on the train travelling with his father to Cape Town for the “Armidale Castle”. They came + talked in my compartment after dinner. Mr. Hutt promised to send me some of the newly discovered palaeoliths from Randfontein, where they are found under 3 feet of talus on the clay.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Thurs. 8                      Cold wind blowing + very dusty, train two hours late at Mafeking – owing to the Cape portion having been delayed by engine getting off the line. Country pretty the colour of the bush being effective with mingled autumn tints, new green + blossom – saw two bateleur eagles, many rollers + glossy starlings, a black shouldered kite, colies, grey louries (schizorhis concolor), guinea fowl, etc. Plenty of Korhaan to north of Mochudi.


Friday 9                      Much warmer. Arrived at Bulawayo about 10 a.m. Was met by Mr.s Corner, Franklin White + Forbes (friend of Abe Bailey). Drove to Museum in Mr. Forbes’ motor. Saw there Meynell, Chub (Zoologist) + Zeally (curator), also Father Gardiner and Mr. Kenny (prospector). Afterwards went to Club + to Mr. A. J. Molyneux office to see some stones. Looked over new Museum building with the architect , Mr. Baker. Met Dr. Lefevre (doctor to the railway) + called on Mr. Inskip, of the S.A. Company. Went to station + saw Mr. Wibberley, acting traffic manager. Given facilities on the railways. Train started late owing to wheels of dining car being changed. Met Mons. Paquot again on the train which he joined from Salisbury. Posted letters to E. + Lewis.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Sat. 10                         Train had made up lost time + arrived at Victoria Falls about 7.30 a.m. Clark met train. After breakfast went for walk along Right bank of river past the boat landing. Hot day with light breeze. In afternoon went across bridge + hunted gravels to right of railway from the cutting to the first point switch. Found some very fair implements. Looked at East end view of falls + got back after dark. After dinner Mons. Paquot + I went over to see the Clarks. Sent cards to E. Jo, Tweenie + Walter + letter to Min.


Sun. 11                        Up early + got out by 7.0 Hunted the bare flats between hotel + railway in direction of the W. end of Falls. Saw pair of bushbuck pass quite close, evidently returning to bush after night-feeding. Also saw an eagle (? Verreaux’s) + later some hornbills (buccinator), + many sunbirds, bulbuls, drongos etc. After breakfast walked along railway to Gauger’s hut (“Mac’s” former hut) + there turned down to the lower level along junction of the red Kalahari sand + the basalt, where the chalcedony seems to have been formed. Found an interesting workshop floor where implements of chalcedony


[---FACING PAGE: Sketch of a bird, labelled: “Black + white hornbill”.---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


were made in large quantities, especially the discoidal forms. Collected a number. Excessively hot + tiring. Walked back along the low level over rough ground up + down deep + very hot kloofs. After lunch went to see Clark who had some specimens for me + who insisted on photographing me. After that went across the bridge + examined some gravel beds but with poor luck. Soper (former bridge-keeper) came to see me after dinner.


Mon. 12                      Went out at 7.0 + worked between hotel + bridge. Saw about 15 guinea fowl. After breakfast crossed bridge + went to top of the high ground forming the left side of the wide valley. Hunted the gravels lying between the railway + the East end of Falls. Found a native mud pipe near the line. In afternoon went with the Baron + Paquot on river in motor launch to Kandahar Id. Had tea up there. Very nice on the water. On return saw a hippo from the landing. Talked to Mrs. Wallace in evening + went to see the native boys dancing.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Tues. 13                      Out at 6.45 a.m. Watched a lot of baboons between hotel + bridge. Saw the guinea fowl again. The baboons were feeding + climbing the trees. After breakfast wrote to Mrs. Lionel Phillips + started out at 10 to the Maramba examining gravel beds along the Zambesi. Very hot + tiring. Saw “go-away” birds, about 50 guinea fowl in a flock, 2 wild geese, a spur-winged plover + a smaller plover + sandpiper, several black + white Kingfishers (Ceryle) a malachite Kingfisher, a hammerkop, black-shouldered kite, sunbirds, red-winged spreews, several carmine-breasted bee-eaters, etc. Also saw a large crocodile (apparently about 10 feet or so long) basking on a rock. Got back after 7.0 pm. very tired. After dinner went with the Baron + Paquot through the rain forest by half-moon light. Saw lunar rainbow. We were out about 1 1/2 hours doing the round + back by the bridge.


[---FACING PAGE: Sketch of a crocodile, labelled: “Zambesi, near mouth of Maramba, 13 Sept.”---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Wed. 14                       Went to Livingstone by the 7.50 a.m. train with Mrs. Wallace, Mrs. Mallett + Mons. Paquot. Said goodbye to Paquot who was continuing north on his way across Africa from S. to N. Went to see P.T. Miller at his house near the station. He gave me use of a pump trolly to the Maramba bridge + a boy to carry things. Got off at the bridge at 10 a.m. + spent nearly 6 hours along the bed of the river on successful hunt for stone implements, found in large numbers along the gravels in the bed. Some fine implements found. Also some were taken from 3-9 feet deep in undisturbed alluvium in steep bank faces near the brick fields. The left bank there is high + the river has cut again through its own (or at any rate an ancient alluvium) alluvium which is stratified + shows layers of coarse drift with implements imbedded in fine silt. Left the river a little before 4.0 pm + went to Livingstone to the Government House. Called on Mr. S. Goode (secretary) + also on the Administrator (Mr. Wallace). Had tea on the stoep with Mrs. Wallace + the Administrator, who invited me to spend a few days at Government House. Came back with Miller along the line on his pump trolly (c. 8 1/2 miles), getting in at about 6.0. During the day, saw carmine-breasted bee-eaters, a large kite, bateleur eagles, various kinds of kingfishers (ceryle, malachite etc), drongos, plovers, sandpipers, swifts etc.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Thurs. 15                    Spent morning in neighbourhood of the 5th turn of the cañon, going down by the new path from the hotel. Examined the chalcedonic deposits at base of red sand on the basalt kopjes + found factory sites on either side of the path. Unfinished implements very numerous. Found some really good implements of Early palaeo type. Discoidal impl. very numerous but less so than on the sites below the Gauger’s hut + between that + the Masui. In afternoon explored the base of the red sand on the other side of the river between the railway line + the line of hills bounding the valley, + found similar conditions, factory everywhere. Discoidals abundant + river-drift types fairly frequent. Found some very good ones. After dinner went through rain forest with Mr. Dunning + saw a very good lunar rainbow (slightly coloured) with a 3/4 moon. Very wet in the forest. Went to see Clark afterwards + chatted with him + Mrs. Clark.


Fri. 16.                        Started for the Masui R. at 11.0 am taking lunch with me. Walked along the line to the Masui Bridge + then turned upstream for half a mile; examined chalcedonic outcrop at base of red sand. Found implements numerous + unfinished ones abundant, esp. discoidals. No fine ones seen. Then I went down the river chiefly along the river bed as far as the mouth. Few implements in river bed but numerous on the high bank in chalcedonic drift or outcrop. Saw large crocodile in a pool + he passed within two or three yards of me as he scrambled over a rock to get from one pool to the next. Seemed about 6 ft or so long; he was badly scared. At mouth of river looking over into the Kloof saw two steinbok feeding. Baboons numerous + very abusive. Several climbed up to tops of high trees to watch me and barked at me like dogs. Also saw carmine breasted + little bee=eaters, a hammerkop, night heron, some bateleur eagles, francolin, red-winged spreews etc. From the Masui mouth I came back to hotel by compass. Very rough going through very thorny bush + long grass over very stony ground, up + down deep kloofs. The temperature fell at night + it was quite cold.


[---FACING PAGE: Sketch of a bird, labelled: “Hammerkop. Masui R.”---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Sat. 17.                        Did some packing in morning + saw Clark. In afternoon went over the bridge + along the drifts of the left bank. These are all implementiferous + near the river the small drift is of rounded pebbles mixed with larger chalcedonic pieces + basalt; further away towards the red sand the small drift becomes more angular. On way back picked up a very fine small [sketch] “palaeo” in middle of road to Livingstone, about 1/2 mile above E. end of Falls. Saw a number of darters (Plotus together on river bank. Also saw a fishing eagle (_____ [left blank] rocifer) + a small goshawk, etc.


Sun. 18.                       Out at 6.30 a.m. + went with Clark to end of promontory from hotel. Watched a number of hornbills (_____ [left blank] buccinator). After breakfast went up Dales kopje, very fine view from there especially up the river. Found chalcedonic deposits of poor quality + a few round + unfinished implements on slopes + at top of the kopje. Came back via the boat landing + had some tea with Brown. Saw a nightjar + lots of “go away” birds. In afternoon went through the Rain Forest + looked


[---FACING PAGE: Sketch of a bird, labelled: “Darter”.---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


at various views as far as Danger Point. Excellent rainbows. Saw about a dozen black-faced monkeys (cerc. Lallandii) in the Forest + watched them some time. Then went over bridge + down Palm Kloof to the “Boiling Pot”. Saw numbers of hornbills, black tits, bulbuls etc, but no monkeys or baboons. After that went across base of second promontory over implementiferous drifts of chalcedony + basalt + up a Kopje on the top of which I found quantities of chalcedony + a few implements. Flakes very numerous (chalcedony + jasper) + rude implements pretty abundant. After dinner went down to the bridge with the Malletts, Mrs. Wallace + Mrs. Breech (wife of the Station Master + formerly one of the nurses at Bulawayo Hospital who nursed E. when she had pleurisy.). There was no lunar rainbow as heavy clouds came up + some rain fell, a very unusual thing at this time of year.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Mon. 19                      Got some photos from Clark. At 10 a.m. took canoe to the boat house on Livingstone side where was met by the Administrator’s buggy + team of four mules + driven to Government House to stay night. Met by Mr. Francis (private secretary). Taken round Livingstone by Mr. Francis. Found the place very much developed + laid out, even golf links, tennis courts etc. Buildings being hurriedly run up for Duke of Connaughts visit. Mrs. Wallace was ill in bed so did not see her. After lunch with the Administrator I was given the mule buggy + drove to the brick fields when I started walking up the Maramba bed + banks with a boy carrying thermos flask of tea. Explored the drifts all the way + found implements, one embedded in alluvium in the bank four feet deep. Sent the buggy round to the fish hatchery some miles up stream. Passed over outcrops of quartzite on the banks where implement factories had been. At the fish (trout) hatchery retook the buggy + drove back to Livingstone along sandy track through the bush. Dined with the Administrator + Mr. Francis on the verandah of Government House. Turned in at 11.30. During day saw several bateleur eagles + ? Varreaux’s eagles, pied barbets, long-tailed drongos, namaqua doves, cape doves, hammerkop, plovers + sandpipers, swifts, hornbills (smaller kind), rollers, little + carmine-breasted bee-eaters, black tits etc.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Tues. 20                      Breakfast at 8.0. At 9.15 went for a ride on Administrator’s horse; went to brickfields after looking up Miller. Accompanied by a groom on foot. Turned up river + rode to the fish-hatchery where I left horse with groom + walked farther up stream. Very pretty scenery, rocky river + bush country becoming nice + green; tree wistarias in flower. Saw some small parrots, barbets, eagles (chiefly bateleur), rollers, hornbills etc. Passed through a native kraal, the natives stopping their work to give the clapping salutation. Remounted horse at the hatchery + managed to shed the groom who did not show up again. Took a compass line to Livingstone through the bush. Passed large native kraal where the women were pounding [illegible] + preparing food. Left horse at stable. Went to lunch at Dr. Ellacombe’s house where I met Dr. Davis + Dr. W. May (with whom I had travelled in train three years ago. Afterwards I looked around Livingstone + went to tea with Miller. He lent me his pump trolly + I went to Government House to fetch my bag, sign book + say goodbye to the Administrator. Then was trollied back along the line in 3/4 hour to the Falls Hotel, arriving at about 5.50. After dinner had walk with Mrs. Wallace down the line + back by path from W. end of Falls. Packed.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Wed. 21                       Came away by the 12.5 Zambesi Express to go direct to Cape Town. Large compartment reserved through for me. The P.M. Clarks with their young travelled by same train en route for Durban + P.T. Miller came as far as B’wayo. Hot + dusty travelling. Reached Wankie about 5.0 pm. Cooler night, but dust awful.


Thurs. 22                    Arrived B’wayo 5.45 a.m. met by Franklin White + R.N. Hall. Had breakfast at the Club with White and C. Corner. Received refund of £18.13.0 on my railway ticket (return Vryburg – Falls) owing to a free pass on Rhodesian railways having been given one by the Directors. Left B’wayo at 9.15 a.m. Another hot, dusty day – saw many rollers (candatus + mosambicus), a few Korhaans, kestrels, eagles (Wahlberg’s etc), a large paauw (? otis cafra), red-winged spreews, corvus collaris, urolestes melanoleucus, glossy starlings, fiscals, drongos, hornbills (chiefly lophoceros, large + small, prob. erythrorhynchus + leucomelas). plocepasser mahali (whitebrowed weaver). Namaqua doves + cape doves, 2 Egyptian geese, etc. during this + next two days.


Fri – 23                       In train. Arr. Mafeking 10.15 am. Kimberley 9.40 pm. Three hours to wait there. Stayed on train + read the “Dop Doctor”


[---FACING PAGE: Sketch of a boy playing a fiddle, labelled: “Bomangwato boy playing upon native fiddle with minute bow; an old tin used as resonator, hung on end of bow. The string is stopped with the left thumb-nail.”---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Sat. 24                         In train—no particular incident scenery became more interesting, but the Hex River pass was crossed in the middle of the night.


Sun. 25                        Arrived at Cape Town 7.15 a.m. Drove to International Hotel (rather second class). Had a look round Museum, + had walk over lower slopes of Table Mountain in evening. Flowers coming out well. Watched sun birds + bakbakiris etc, the former very tame. Came back via Kloof nek.


Mon. 26                      Went to see Peringuey + found he had had some casts of Bushman rock engravings made for me. Went to Maitland in afternoon + walked about the Cape Flats. Claimed my belongings left at the Club.


Tues. 27.                     Did shopping. Called on Hoernle. Packed. Went to Museum to see Peringuey in afternoon. In evening went to City Hall to hear Marie Hall play. She played splendidly + Miss Louie Rasche played piano very well.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Wed. 28

                       Got off a number of letters + sent £5 to F. Holland at Port Elizabeth to lay out in ostrich feathers. Sent P.O. for £1.0.3 to Reunert for freight of box forwarded to C.T. Collected boxes from Museum + finished packing. Went on board “Kildonan Castle” at 2.30 pm. + took over Cabin No.9 on promenade deck, starboard side. Box from Mrs. Lionel Phillips came on board. Received home letters on board. Peringuey, Mr. Francis Oats + his son came down to say goodbye. Cleared the harbour heads at about 5 pm. Mountain quite clear + sun out. Ran at once into a roughish sea + a S. – S.E. wind. Ship rolling a good deal. Sat at Captain’s table with Mr. Gregory, Miss Mitchell, Mr. Persehouse +Mr. Smith. Weather coldish.


Thurs. 29                    Fairish breeze from S. ship rolling, sometimes heavily. Bright sun for most part. Great numbers of Cape Hens + Albatrosses (Exulans) a few molymawks [sic] (chlororhyncus) [sic], + small storm petrels (? sp) + a few Cape Pigeons (Daption) + another rather smaller petrel white underneath + all dark above.


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a telegram, sent from Cape Town, dated 29-30 August 1910.---]


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a booklet containing the Union-Castle Line “Kildonan Castle” Royal Mail Service between England and South and East Africa list of passengers.---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Friday 30                    Rather dull but getting brighter. Ship rolling a good deal. Birds getting less numerous but still many Cape hens + large albatrosses, one or two molymawks (chlororhyncus) + one or two of the white bellied petrels.


Sat. Oct. 1                   Very few birds in morning. Hardly any Cape Hens, no stormy [sic] petrels, + only a few albatrosses + mollymawks, no cape pigeons, but a very few white bellied petrels. In afternoon a few more albatrosses turned up + a tern. Played cricket in the afternoon + felt pretty stiff afterwards.


Sun. 2                          A few Cape Hens + a mollymawk (chlororhynchus) + a few very stormy petrels (? sp.) during the day. No big albatrosses. Sea phosphorescent slightly at light from medusae. Sky overcast. Sea calm + ship steady. Finished reading Lady Anne Barnard’s “S. Africa a century ago” 1797-1801.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Mon. 3                        Birds all gone. Flying fish very scarce. Overcast day, not very hot, sea smooth – played cricket in afternoon.


Tues. 4                        Fine, sunny day, after dull early morning. Have been doing physical drill every morning at 7. Schools of dolphins in early morning. Flying fish very numerous. Also saw two skuas + a large petrel. Sun vertical today.


Wed. 5                         Oily smooth sea. Pretty warm but nothing excessive. Passed the Equator about noon. Cricket in afternoon.


Thurs. 6                      Many storm petrels following ship, + flocks of terns fishing. Sports began. Overhauled the “German” (Intermediate) at 16 against 13 knots, during afternoon, passing quite close (350 yards). Large school of dolphins in evening.


Fri. 7                           Sandpipers flew on board + also a dove, driven off the coast by a tornado which struck us in the morning. Heavy rain. Sun out in afternoon. Sports continued. Fancy dress dance in evening.


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is the R.M.S. “Kildonan Castle” “programme of athletic sports to be held on the promenade deck”.]


[---FACING PAGE: Postcard of the Kildonan castle, labelled: “SPORTS ON BOARD. Exciting moment in the obstacle race!”. Balfour has drawn little stick figures doing gymnastics all over the ship.---]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Sat. 8                           Passed Cape Verde at about 4.0 a.m. Passed the “Norman” (outward bound) at 6.0 am. Tug of war (1st v second class), second class won owing to part of the deck being slippery from french chalk. Several sword fishes seen in morning, also some sharks + later a small fin back jumping out of the water. Dove still flying round ship + settling at intervals. Great many Portuguese men-of-war in afternoon. Wind rising + ship pitching somewhat.


Sun. 9                          Fine + breezy. Steady trade wind from north. Nice + cool. Flying fish still to be seen.


Mon. 10                      Teneriffe sighted at daybreak. Clear during most of the day + a very fine sight. Passed close to Teno Point. A few flying fish + some shearwaters seen. Perfectly calm, oily sea in afternoon after passing Teno Point. Concert after dinner.


Tues. 11                      Anchored off Funchal at 6.15 a.m. Fine morning. Did not go ashore, though everyone else in First Saloon did. Left Madeira at 11.45 a.m. Learnt about the revolution + declaration of Portuguese republic. The Republic flag, red + green (hideous) was flying everywhere in Funchal. Shearwaters very numerous + gulls.


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a booklet entitled “The Union Castle Mail Steamship Co. Ltd. Programme”, being a programme of a musical concert given on board on Monday, October 10th, 1910.]


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Wed. 12                       Sea increasing + ship pitched a good deal in afternoon + evening. Saw a few Caspian terns. Day mostly fine. Impromptu concert in evening.


Thurs. 13                    Pitching fairly heavily. Reduced muster at breakfast. Passed the U.C.S.S. “Balmoral Castle” with the Duke of Connaught on board + attended by a cruiser, the “Defence” (?), at 10 a.m. South of Finisterre. Sun well out. Passed Finisterre about 12.30 pm. + ran into unpleasant weather. Pitching heavily at times. A few whales seen + a dolphin. Passed three Norwegian whalers in the Bay, bound for Durban.


Fri. 14                         Wind veered round to S.E. during night, blowing hard. Heavy rain + spray made decks impossible + my cabin almost unapproachable. Wind freshened to a moderate gale + later to a strong gale (8 in scale) + things were fairly lively off Ushant. Numbers of gannets, petrels, guillemots seen of. Ushant. Sun came out in afternoon + sea moderated + ship became steady during the night.


[---NEXT PAGE---]


Sat. 15                         Abreast of the needles at 4.30 a.m. Stopped to pick up pilot. Alongside quay at Southampton by 5.30. Went ashore at 7.45 + cleared my things through the customs without trouble. Saw the London train off + went to Town Station to catch 9.8 a.m. train for Oxford, via Winchester + Reading. Arrived at Oxford at 11.55. Met by E.


[Inserted at the back of the diary is a business card of Georges Paquot; the address is corrected by hand]


[Inserted at the back of the diary is a letter from F.A. Cooper, Town Clerk of Krugersdorp, inviting Balfour to dinner on behalf of the Mayor, Councillor J.C. Stegmann. Letter dated 26th August 1910.]


[Inserted at the back of the diary is a letter addressed to Balfour, on Pretoria Club stationery, dated 31st August 1910.]


[Inserted at the back of the diary is a letter from the Acting Secretary for the Public Library of Johannesburg, enclosed with Balfour’s fee of £300 for delivering the South African Lectures. Letter dated 24th October 1910.]


[Inserted at the back of the diary is a poster announcing Balfour’s lectures of 15th and 18th July 1910 in the Dutch Reformed Church Hall in Cape Town.]


[Inserted at the back of the diary is a letter from the Acting Traffic Manager certifying that Balfour should have free passage over Victoria Falls Bridge and receive facilities while at Victoria Falls. Letter dated 9th September 1910.]


[Inserted at the back of the diary is a sheet of stationery of the Port Elizabeth Club, South Africa, onto which Balfour has written some names and personal details/addresses.]


[Inserted at the back of the diary is a bundle of papers listing details of the South African Lectures 1910: Local Secretaries, List of Lectures and a synopsis of each, and Itinerary. Balfour has scribbled a few notes on the final page.]


[Inserted at the back of the diary is a card addressed to Balfour from Dominic Ramsbottom at Bloemfontein, dated 28th August 1910.]


[Inserted at the back of the diary is a card from R.A. Lehfeldt at Johannesburg, inviting Balfour to dinner. Letter dated 27th August 1910.]


[Inserted at the back of the diary is a bundle of papers listing acquaintances of Balfour per city: Grahamstown, E. London, Durban.]


[Inserted at the back of the diary is a letter to Balfour from Lewis Michell, dated 3rd September 1910.]