Nigeria 1930

Diaries of Henry BALFOUR (1863-1939), anthropologist and museum curator


Nigeria, 1930



[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a telegram offering Balfour accommodation at Enugu, Balfour has written a poem and list of clothing to pack.]


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Wednesday July 2.     Train left Euston at 10.30 a.m. Arrived at Prince’s Dock, Liverpool at 2.30 pm. Went on board the Elder Dempster M.V. “Apapa”. Cabin 10 on C. deck. Very cramped for space + certainly not worth the extra money paid. Cast off from the quay at 3.40 pm (ship’s time, 50 minutes behind shore time). Passed the “Bar” lightship at 4.5 pm. Rain during evening.


Thursday 3rd.              Pitching, spray coming well over the bows. Run at noon, 288 m. Herring- + Lesser Black-backed Gulls, a few Greater B-backed Gulls, Black headed Gulls, Maux Shearwaters and immature Gannets. Poor visibility.


Friday, 4th.                  Calm with only slight rolling; mainly fine. A few Greater Black-backed Gulls + Greater Shearwaters. Run, 347 m. Mist + rain in the evening.


Saturday 5th,                Fine, cool breeze. Run, 354 m., 12° N., 38°56' W. Only one small steamer sighted during the day. Practically no birds (one Storm Petrel). Beautiful clear, calm night; much warmer.


[Inserted into the pages of the diary is a booklet containing the list of passengers, ports of call, table of distances for the Elder Dempster Lines M.V. “Apapa” of Wednesday, July 2nd 1930.]


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Sunday, July 6th—      Warmer, though a following breeze of some strength. Fine. A few flying-fish + shearwaters seen. Run, 348 m. Only two ships sighted.


Monday, 7th.               Tenerife in sight at 7.30 a.m. Misty but clearing up. Passed fairly close to Sta. Cruz + the Peak became free from cloud. Birds very scarce + I only saw a few Petrels + Shearwaters. Strong following breeze made it quite cool. Run, 352 m. Grand Canary seen through mist to Port.


Tuesday, 8th.               N-E. trade wind blowing strongly. Nice + cool all day. Many Madeiran Storm Petrels were following the ship. A few Shearwaters + a tern seen. Large flying-fish fairly plentiful. Run, 348 m. Passed Cape Blanco during the day.


Wednesday, 9th.          Much warmer, getting away from the N-E. trade wind. Flying-fish very abundant; also dolphins. In afternoon Storm Petrels were numerous, + I saw some large Petrels (all white below), some Skuas (? Richardson’s), dolphins + a few Velellas. Cape Verde sighted at about 6.15 pm + was abeam at 7 pm. Run, 342 m. “Cabaret” dance during dinner. I eat my dinner in peace + danced “by proxy”.


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Thursday, July 10th—            Warm + sticky; very calm. A few Storm Petrels; flying fish much scarcer than yesterday. Run, 337 m. It rained a good deal in the afternoon + a breeze sprang up.


Friday, 11th.                Rain + mist. Approaching Freetown, Sierra Leone, slowly. Arrived in the fine natural harbour at about 9.30 am. Scenery very beautiful, though spoilt by the continuous rain. Just outside the entrance, the SS. “Fulani” lies on a reef, where she was wrecked in 1913; showing very little signs of breaking up. A large hole was made in her side to salve the machinery. Behind the lighthouse is a very attractive little sandy bay. Oil palms + silk-cotton trees dominate the scenery. The town lies mainly on the low ground around the harbour; residential bungalows streaming far up the steep hillsides at the back, making a fine background. Veryfew birds – a couple of large Crested Terns + a few gulls. Several Velellas were floating outside + inside the harbour, which is very fine + entirely natural. Had planned to go ashore with Dunn, Webb + Bridal, but incessant rain prevented this. So I watched the Kroo boys diving for coins from their small dug-out canoes, which are well-shaped with thin walls, sharp-pointed at both ends. Excellent watermanship displayed


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in diving in + reimbarking. We took on board a deck cargo of Kola nuts for trading to Kano etc in N. Nigeria. We up-anchored at about 2.30 pm., still raining. Very calm. Only a few dolphins + Velellas seen + great quantities of floating cuttle-bone.


Saturday 12th—           Fairly close in to the Liberian coast at 6 a.m. Hazy + rain at intervals. Low-lying coast, sandy backed by dense forest. It cleared as we approached Monrovia, which looked quite attractive; well-timbered with some good-looking houses. A Woermann S.S + a Dutch SS. Were anchored there in the open roadstead. Very calm. No birds + only a few Velellas. Large surf-boats came from inside the lagoon over the bar to the ship, bringing rather low-comedy Liberian officials in fancy uniforms. Numbers of single fishermen in small dug-outs were dotted about the bay. We anchored at about 9.45 am + sailed again in about 2 or 3 hours. Weather cleared up. Passed a lot of fishing dug-outs rigged with rectangular spritsails, sailing well with two occupants. The coast line varies little in character; forest reaching down to the coast-line.


[---FACING PAGE: Sketches of “Types of West Coast paddles.”, labelled individually: “Freetown, Sierra Leone”; “Monrovia, Liberia”; “Takoradi, Gold Coast”; “Accra, Gold Coast”.---]


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Sunday, 13th—            At sea; fine + calm, out of sight of land. No birds. One smallish Rorqual + some bonito seen. Very disappointing voyage from a naturalist’s point of view.


Monday 14th—           Off Takoradi (Gold Coast) by daybreak; entering the recently constructed harbour at 6.15 a.m. Not attractive looking being all modern + prosaic. Secondí a little to the Eastward looked pretty, as also some native coast villages. Some large terns resembling St. bergii + some small dark smoke-grey terns with black collars + square tails. Harbour fairly large, formed with two long stone moles (one 1 1/4 miles long). The road to Accra was said to be closed near Cape Coast Castle, owing to a bad wash-out, so I did not motor to Accra from Takoradi, as had been suggested by Saunter, who had offered to get one of his firm’s cars to run me there (c.180 miles), to rejoin the ship at Accra. I went ashore with Saunter + Mulholland in a launch. We motored in Mulholland’s car to Secondí, called at Mr. Norman’s office + then went to his bungalow, a very delightful one on fairly high ground, with views over the town, sea + harbour. A cool breeze blew through the bungalow. Plenty of sun-birds, Fiscal Shrikes,


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bright-coloured finches, Collared crows, Vultures (protected as sanitary board). Also a shrike-like brownish bird which was very common. Swifts with conspicuous white rumps and [sketch]-tails + large swallows with very long forked tails, were plentiful. Mr. Norman gave us an excellent lunch. Later we motored back to Takoradi harbour via the Axim road, + were paddled to the ship in one of the Tobacco Company’s surf-boats, the crew of which sang lustily, with a touch of harmony (thirds + fifths, I think). The ship was far from the landing-place + we got on board at 4.30 pm. The ship drew out of the harbour + anchored in the roads outside (to the same harbour dues. The day was fine + not too hot. We up-anchored at 10 pm. + started for Accra.


Tuesday, 15th—          Off Accra at 6 am. + anchored in the open roadstead a long way from the shore. Quite a fine day. Crowds of large surf-boats came out to the ship, paddled + not rowed. Passengers were slung overboard in a wooden cradle swung from a derrick, and hauled on board in similar fashion. A moderate surf was running. As the ship was said to be stopping only a short time, I did not go ashore. There would have been time as it turned out. The town looked attractive. Government House (the old Christianborg Castle) stands


[---FACING PAGE: Two photographs, “3.” and “2.”, sharing the label: “Surf-boats from Accra, alongside the “Apapa”.---]


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commandingly above the shore a little east of the town + shows up well as a large white building. Terns (? St. bergii) were the only birds I saw from the ship. We sailed again at 1 p.m. on the last stage for Lagos. Very nice, cool breeze from the south. Ship rolling a bit.


Wednesday, 16th—     Off Lagos before daybreak. Entered the harbour about 6 am. Passing between long stone moles. Tied up at the Lagos wharf. Fremlin (of the Secretariat) came on board + I had a talk with him. I had intended to stay on board while in Lagos, as the only hotel is extremely bad; but on arrival I received a letter from Mr. A.C. Burns (acting Chief Secretary) inviting me to stay at his house, + Mrs. Burns came on board to collect Mrs. Morgan (of Kaduna) and me, and she motored us to the house at Ikoyi, a few miles out of Lagos. Luggage was left to be passed through Customs + to come on in a Government lorry (It duly turned up later). The early morning on board had been appallingly noisy, as, in addition to the usual shouting + general quay noises, a “band” of three ‘musicians’ (two drums + a very strident algaita, or oboe) was playing vigorously on the quay to welcome the Abba of Igbira on his return from a pilgrimage to Mecca – and to London. The din was soul-destroying, the oboeist keeping up a continuous


[---FACING PAGE: Photograph “4.”, labelled: “Lowering passengers in a ‘mammy chair”, ACCRA.”---]


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blast by blowing out his cheeks to the full and using them like the air-bag of a bagpipes.

                                    The Burns’ house at Ikoyi is delightful, situated on the shore of a lagoon. I was given a perfect suite of rooms with bath-room etc complete. A nice sea breeze kept the heat within bounds. After lunch I went to the Secretariat with Mr. Burns + then had a stroll round the town, whose population is very heterogeneous, + not very attractive. It was fine, hot + moist. There had been deluges of rain on the previous days. I fixed up for my return passage with Elder Dempster. Burns + I returned to the house to collect the ladies, + after dropping Mrs. Burns at the Ikoyi Club, we motored across the bridges to Iddo and on to Apapa, to fix up Mrs. Morgan’s luggage for the boat train, as she was going on to Kaduna that evening. Many of the “Apapa”’s passengers were congregated at the Rest House by the quay + I talked to various friends. We returned to the Ikoyi Club + stayed there watching the tennis + meeting people. I dined with Mr. Carr, at his bungalow in Ikoyi, + met there Miss Sanderson (of Oxford, teaching in Queens College, Lagos), Mr. Hunt (a friend of Melville Lee), Matthews + R.O. Ramage of the Secretariat. Had an amusing evening + got back to the Burns’ house after they had turned in. On board the “Apapa” I had met Lee + at the Secretariat Hall (both former students of mine).


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Thursday 17th—         Very fine, sunny day. I went into Lagos with Burns + drew £50 from the Bank, + laid in a stock of quinine. I went to see Hussey (Director of Education, Nigeria) at his office, + had a chat with Hall at the Secretariat. Then back to the Burns house for lunch. After tea Mr. + Mrs. Burns + I motored across the Iddo + Druham Bridges to Yabba, where we went around the grounds of the Rockefeller Experimental (Yellow fever) research institute. We were only able to look round the beautiful gardens, as Dr. Bucas, the chief, was not there. I had met the latter on board the “Apapa”. The Institute had had trouble, having lost some members of the staff, who had become infected + died of yellow fever. We next went to the Club, where Dr. Palmer joined us. I knew him as a fellow-passenger in the “Apapa”. When we got back to the house I found Hussey waiting to take me off to dine with him at his house overlooking the Race-course. I had a long chat with him + arranged to stay with him on my return to Lagos in September, + to go with him to Abeokuta. I got back to the Burns’ at about 11 pm. They had turned in + I spent some time repacking my luggage. During the day I had engaged a ‘travelling boy’ William _____ [left blank] (a Sobo boy from Warri) at £4 per month.


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Friday, 18th—             My baggage + boy were fetched by a government lorry, + I motored with Burns to Elder Dempster’s office to deposit some luggage with them for the return voyage. I was then motored to Iddo Station for the 10.30 am train to Oshogbo (the “Rich-mixed”). Burns’ clerk had gone on before, taken my tickets + seen my luggage on board the train. Had compartment to myself. At lunch in the restaurant car I was recognized by G.I. Jones (D.O. at Ogoja, under Amanry Talbot, + one of my Diploma students for a short while. We travelled together the rest of the way + I arranged to go to Ogoja if I could possible manage it, though it is a difficult place to get to. The train followed the course of the Ogun R. more or less, on the way to Abeokuta, turning eastward to Ibódan + then N-E. to Oshogbo. Scenery fine, mostly forest + secondary forest, with cultivation clearings for maize, yams, manioc etc. Occasional teak plantations. Oil palms everywhere + buttressed silk-cotton trees (useless as timber, but furnishing ‘kapok’.). I saw several Lark-heeled Cuckoos (Centropus grillii?), some Louries (Turacus persa) with bright crimson on wings. Many hornbills (Bycanistes ? albotibialis) + Lophoceros (? sp.). Quantities of weaver birds + their nests in oil palms, which they destroy by stripping


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the leaves into shreds for their nest-building. Some small eagles or buzzards, swallows, swifts, doves, etc. It was quite dark long before the train reached Oshogbo at about 7.45 pm. Harold Aveling met me + his orderlies + my boy saw to the luggage. Harold + I went to the Rest house – quite a nice one + shared a room there, he having brought food etc. There had been heavy rain during the afternoon, but generally the day was fine + not too hot.


Saturday, 19th—          Up at 7am. After breakfast we went into Oshogbo for shopping. It was interesting to watch the Yoruba women of their way to market with yams + a variety of goods, all carried on their heads. One sees great variety of facial scars + also much tattooing, sometimes covering the body below the breasts in close designs. From the Rest House I watched a palm-wine collector climbing the oil-palms, using a strong loop round the stem + the body + walking up the stems with great celerity + ease, jerking the loop upwards at each step. We went to the D.O.’s bungalow + found him + Mrs. Norcott having breakfast. They asked me to stay with them on my return, + to go to Ifé to see the old juju carvings + shrines there.

                                    Harold + I started motoring to Akure (73 miles) at 9.35 am.


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The road led through Ilesha + Igbara Oke, crossing a small river forming the boundary between Oyo + Ondo provinces. Very attractive road – red laterite, through secondary bush + virgin forest with large clumps of bamboos. We passed great numbers of natives, mostly women carrying produce, + men carrying ‘Dane’ (flint-lock) guns of antiquated type. There are some cocoa plantations along the road + a few planted teak trees. Most of the clearings had become overgrown with secondary bush growth, a tangle of creeping plants smothering everything + reaching the tops of high trees. We arrived at the Residency at Akure at about 12.30 pm., after a three-hour run from Oshogbo. Road not bad, except here + there. The house on a small hill has fine views over ranges of granite hills + has a very nice garden. Grace was waiting for us. I was given a large bed-room with bathroom etc, very complete. The Station, which is the centre for Ondo Province, is a small one with only a few Whites. Birds plentiful, chiefly orange-cheeked finches + black-+white estrildas, pin-tailed wydah birds, sunbirds (several species), weaver-birds, bulbuls, swallows etc. The night was fine + cool, a fine air blowing through my room. Some rain.


[---FACING PAGE: Two photographs, “5.” and “6.”, labelled: “The Residency, AKURE”; “In the Residency garden.”, respectively.---]


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Sunday, 20th.               Breakfast at 8.15 am. Day mainly fine + not too hot. Made friends with the cook’s grey parrot which was loose in the Compound. We went to lunch with Thorburn (Education), whose mother lives in Oxford. In the afternoon I prowled around the Station looking at the birds etc. There were lots of sunbirds (Cinnyris _____ [left blank]) of several species, especially in a tree covered with honey-suckle. A very small species (? C. chloropygius lühderi) was among them. Many very small red-billed, black-+white Pin-tailed wydah birds, Orange-cheeked estrildas (Estrilda m. melpoda) in small flocks; yellow weaver birds with black markings, building nests from strips torn from oil-palm leaves, forming long streamers as the birds flew with them. The nests are largely attached to the tips of the palm leaves + are rounded, without the long retort-like entry tunnel so commonly seen in weaver’s nests; the entrance holes are roughly plaited round. (Ploceus monachus, or P. vitellinus). Major + Mrs. Sumner arrived in afternoon from Benin, Mrs. Sumner being on her way home to England. Their loads had broken down at a wash-out on the road, together with the mails [They turned up a day or two later].


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Monday 21st.              The Summers, who had been put up in a guest house near the Residency, started off for Oshogbo after breakfast. I spent some time with Harold looking over maps etc in the Office + wandered about till driven in by rain, which continued till 3.45pm. I then went for a walk along the Owo road. I saw many large hornbills, sunbirds, estrildas etc. Later, Harold, Grace + I motored into the town + visited the Déji, who took us over his house, which is large + partly new + in semi-European style, with an upper floor. Decorations inside are very tawdry + quaint – snakes + other symbolic designs, very crudely executed. The old house at the back is much more interesting + quite in the old style, built entirely of laterite mud. It is a rambling structure of considerable extent, with pitch dark passages, courtyards with impluvia, a large courtyard for dances etc, with sacrificial stone at one side, + with raised mud sitting benches all round the walls. The mud walls are very thick + smooth-surfaced. We went through to the women’s quarters, where the Déji’s wives etc. were weaving cotton cloth on upright looms with single string-loop heddle, + shuttles about 30 inches long (about the width of the cloth). The ‘sword’ or ‘beater in’


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is smooth, flattish + without terminal hook, used for opening out the ‘shed’ + for beating home the weft. Counter-shed formed by a resistance-rod. Warp in colours wound round + round between the beams. The girls were also spinning yarn with roughly carved wooden spindles with wooden whorls of cylindrical form. The Déji has many wives + reckons to have some 200 children. He speaks no English + we used an interpreter.


Tuesday, 22nd—         Harold + I motored to Ondo, c. 36 m., in the morning. Road good, and much cleared of forest around Akure, for cultivation of maize, millet, manioc, yams etc. After crossing the Owenni R., a small river dividing Akure + Ondo Divisions of Ondo Province – forest was more prevalent, but there is much cocoa grown along the road in the shade of forests. The cocoa-pods, growing directly from the steams, was already approaching maturity. Numbers of natives (Yorubas mostly) along the road. The younger children usually stark naked; the women mostly clothed from the waist downward in gaily patterned cotton cloths. Many hornbills (Lophoceros), sun-birds, small eagles, estrilda finches etc. seen.

                                    We drove straight to the Government Station, finely placed on a hill-top with outcrop of huge granite boulders, many of


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them being split through by thermal action. The smooth sides of the granite hills were a striking feature. Dickens, the D.O., who had once being [sic] my student, received us and gave us lunch. He was making a very nice garden round the bungalow, bright with cannas, crotons etc. amongst the granite boulders. Mr. Dakin, one of Holt’s agents, a very nice man was lunching there too. I was shown an ancient granite monolithic-pillar which had been found nearby (possibly a phallic emblem). We left at about 2.30 pm. +, after driving through the small native town, returned to Akure by the same road, arriving at 4 pm. After tea, the Déji paid us a return visit at the Residency. We heard him start from his “palace”, a mile or so away, as his bugler tootled all the way from the start. The Déji arrived in full panoply, with very voluminous brightly patterned robe, coral + bauxite beads of large size, + a ‘crown’ of very elaborate bead-work, with large eyes in relief in front + surmounted by the figure of a quadruped (zoological status of this animal was not diagnosable, + the Déji himself could not identify it when I asked him its nature). Strings of beads hung from the crown + fell like a veil over his face. I photographed him + his retinue. After he had gone, we adjourned to the tennis court, Miss Hearne + Miss Cole (two mission ladies), Thorburn, Dunbar + Bath (Engineers) also turning up.


[---FACING PAGE: Photograph “7.”, labelled: “The Déji of AKURE, with attendants, at the Residency.”---]


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Wednesday, 23rd—     Raining during early morning, but it cleared later to a fine, sunny day + a clear starlit night. At 10.30 am Harold + I motored to OWO (pron. AW-WAW), c. 30 miles away along a very beautiful forested road, with wild red cannas growing along the roadside + Gloriosum superbum lilies. The road runs in dead straight sections for miles on end. At the Owerri R. we crossed into Owo division. On arriving at Owo, Harold first took his cook to the doctor to be inoculated against yaws which had developed in his leg. Next we visited the native market, which was densely crowded with natives selling vegetable produce, mud-fish, smoked rats, meat (phew!!), ground-nuts, tobacco leaves, Kola-nuts, gun-flints (made at Brandon, Suffolk), beads, huge snails (Achatina) up to 9 inches long, sold for food, etc. Cowrie shells were serving to some extent as currency. I bought a pottery pipe bowl for a penny. We then went to the office of the D.O. (Major E. Kingsley Milbourne) + went with him to his bungalow to lunch with him + his wife, delightful people who asked me to stay with them on my return journey. The house is on a hill with very fine views. We returned to Akure + went straight on to Ilara, to see pottery making. The Déji was supposed to have warned the Ilara folk to be ready for us, but the message had been


[---FACING PAGE: Photograph “8.”, labelled: “In the market-place, Owo.”---]


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muddled + nothing was prepared. We sent for the bali (headman who came in state + did not seem very intelligent. After a time a woman potter was secured + set to work. The clay lump was placed on a kind of turntable, consisting of a block of wood with concave upper surface, on which rested (+ could be rotated) the base of a large broken pot, covered with a similar pot-base inverted. A lump of clay of the size required for a pot was dumped in centre of the turn-table + was manipulated, punched into a hollow form, + the walls were thinned with thumb + fingers, +, towards the end with a stone held inside as a resistance, the turntable being revolved a quarter turn at intervals. A wet banana leaf was applied to moisten + smooth the walls of the pot. The shaping was direct from the lump of clay + not by building up spirally with coils of clay or clay collars, but this pot was only of small size, [sketch]-shaped, in section. We returned to Akure + adjourned to the tennis court. A Vulturine Fish Eagle flew over the court while we were there. Harold, Grace, Dunbar, Bath + I went to Thorburn’s bungalow for ‘sundowners’. After dinner H., G., + I motored along the Owo road to see if any night roving “beef” were about, but the car’s lights were working badly + we were disappointed, + turned back after a few miles.


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Thursday, 24th—        My heavier luggage had been despatched by Weeks’ Transport lorry to Oshogbo. I started at 9.30 am. in the Residency car for the same place. Harold + Grace were going to Ondo + thence to Okiti pupa to meet the Governor (Sir Graeme Thompson) + to be away for a week. The day turned out fine. Road bad in places, but on the whole very fair for a wet weather road. I arrived at the Norcott’s bungalow outside Oshogbo at 12.30 pm. Exactly 3 hours for the 75 miles. Mrs. Norcott told me the Dr. D.C. Bell (of Oshogbo) had been taken ill in their house a few days ago + had to occupy the guest room + that it was arranged for me to occupy the doctor’s house for the night. I lunched with the Norcott’s + was then motored to the doctor’s house, near the railway station, by Sanderson, the A.D.O., who had been a student of mine two years before. We motored right through the town to get to the house, where I found my loads and boy. I had the house to myself. I was fetched again at 4 pm. + after tea with the Norcotts we motored into the town. The chief was sent for + after prostrating himself flat on the ground before us he took us into a juju house (small + unpretentious) where several carved + painted figures stood all


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all [sic] round the walls. They were 3-4 ft high, mostly representing females – perhaps symbols of the Earth Goddess. Others were men on horseback + there was a group of 4 figures playing ‘mancala’ + a figure holding a drum, etc. These figures are paraded annually in the town. The ‘shrine’ is a small mud-walled building of one room. Next we went with the old chief (preceded by his bugler) to see the new native court, in process of erection. Market was in full swing all round. The town is large + straggling + occupies a wide area. There are many places in it where indigo-dyeing is practiced in large pottery jars. We next went to the new native hospital, run by Dr. Bell, + looked over it – quite a nice small hospital – Only a few patients were in at the time, including a cheery but very hideous old native, who had been operated upon for an enormous hernia + was recovering. I was dumped at Dr. Bell’s house to change for dinner + then went to dine with the Norcotts + spend the evening with them + Sanderson, who ran me back to the doctor’s at 11 pm. Sandflies + mosquitoes very trying during the evening.


Friday 25th—              Up at 7 am. Breakfasted at Dr. Bell’s. Norcott + Sanderson came for me in a car + we motored to Ifé (c.36 miles), passing through


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Ede, a large village. At Ifé we went to the office of the D.O. (McCollagh, of Christs, Cambridge) + after collecting three Yoruba priests we went to a spot on the road where a narrow bush-path branches off. After following it for a while we came upon a large P.W.D. box hidden away in the jungle. This was unlocked by the priests + several beautifully modelled heads of pottery + stone were brought out; there were also many pottery limbs + parts of bodies. The heads are very remarkable + beautifully modelled in a style unlike other indigenous renderings. The faces closely scored with fine vertical lines (in relief in one instance). Two or three have a very distinctly modelled “Mongolian fold” over the eye, evidently quite deliberate. Features very shapely + refined. These heads are similar to those described + figured by Frobenius + to an example in the British Museum. Others (2) of the heads are distinctly negroid + quite distinct in type. It is a great pity that these interesting relics, of whose origin nothing is known to the natives, are not being carefully preserved. In their present position they are suffering from constant wear + tear. I suggested that they be carefully preserved under glass + protected from careless handling.

                                    We followed another bush track + came across a small shrine—a large inverted pot on the ground, with large hole in its side, which


[---FACING PAGE: Photographs “9.”; “10.”; “11.” and “12.”, sharing the label: “Ancient pottery heads, kept in a sacred grove near IFÊ”.---]


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was blocked with a flat stone slab. Under this cover were two small human heads in pottery or stone, which could be seen only indistinctly, around the shrine were great numbers of small pots containing offerings, + chicken’s feathers betokened recent sacrifices. Until very recently human sacrifices were performed at these shrines, in the previous year one was reported. The three ‘priests’, who wore conical caps with a red parrot’s feather stuck in front, + carried long staves of cast brass decorated with many heads + figures in relief + having a peculiar upturned spur or projection – did obeisance before this shrine, but rather perfunctorily. We found other shrines hidden away in the bush, of more or less similar type. We returned to lunch with the D.O., after which we visited the ‘King’s’ Compound, which was barricaded + closed, in consequence of the recent death of the Oni. After much wangling we were allowed to pass through the barricade + went into the newly built central building, the main room of which is decorated with a number of carved + painted wooden posts – female figures (? the Mother Goddess), men on horseback (one on a bicycle!) etc. etc. standing round the walls. A large pin-hinged door cut from a single treetrunk + carved with figures in relief (mostly pornographic) + with a double-tailed fish at the bottom – led into an inner room where as a special favour I was shown two heads, one in pottery + the


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other in cast brass or bronze, very finely modelled + in the style of those seen in the bush. They were shown reluctantly, but I was allowed to handle them one at a time as they were not allowed to “see” each other. Boys + others who tried to peep in from the outside were rigorously chased away + not allowed to see the heads. I photod these heads – separately, of course. The late Oni’s grave, freshly dug, was on the verandah of this building + had not been covered in + completed, + close to it hung his brass-covered drum with the membrane slit, to “kill” it; his bead-covered bag decorated with eyes hung on the wall. Around the ‘cloistered’ periphery of the compound were numerous carved wooden fetish posts, some of them fairly old. We next went into the bush again to see a tall monolith, slender with slightly curved top having 4 facets. Number of iron nails, like huge drawing-pins with spirally wound flat heads, were rammed into the monolith. The history of this pillar is unknown. Not far away in a small enclosure is a ‘shrine’ in which lie two carved stone figures of mudfish, one rather well carved. Evidently of good age; the natives know nothing of them + say that they fell from the sky. We followed another bush-track a long way into the jungle. It was raining heavily + the laterite mud was so slippery that I could hardly stand up.


[---FACING PAGE: Two photographs, “13” and “14”, labelled: “Very fine pottery head”; “”Head of Olokun”, cast in bronze by cire perdue process.” respectively and sharing the label “These two heads are carefully preserved in the Oni’s compound. They must not be allowed to see each other.”; one sketch, labelled: “Stone mud-fish in a shrine in a sacred grove near IFÉ.”---]


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We got well drenched. We crossed a stream on the backs of orderlies, but we might as well have waded through as we already were smothered in red mud. We found a shrine in a grove with a negroid stone figure about 3 ft. high + with indications of recent sacrifices of chickens. Another shrine was dominated by a well carved kneeling stone figure, probably of the Mother Goddess, semi-native in appearance + carved in characteristic Yoruba style. In another shrine along another bush-track were two stone crocodiles, one realistically carved + about 2 ft long. Most of the shrines had small pots for offerings around them + remains of sacrifices.

                                    After returning to the D.O.’s house for drinks, we started to go back to Oshogbo. We had intended returning via Ilesha, but the road was too bad after rain, so we took the direct route again at about 5 pm. When about half way we had a bad puncture +, as the spare tyre was leaking, we were held up for more than half an hour for repairs. This was unlucky was I had to catch an 8.30 train to Kaduna. I got to Dr. Bell’s house after 7 + had to skurry to get a bath + a change of clothes, which involved unpacking + repacking my soaked clothes. Weeks’ lorry came for my luggage + I went in it to the Station, getting there by 8 pm.


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The station was pitch dark + it took a long time to get my tickets find my boy in the crowd, get my luggage weighed in etc. The Norcotts came down to see me off + to meet Sumner who was returning to Benin after seeing his wife off in Lagos. I had a compartment to myself. The train was very jolty + the seats very hard. Train left at 8.30 pm. + being tired + I did without dinner + turned in + managed to sleep as the night was cool.


Saturday, 26th—          Still in the train – fairly fine day. When I got up the scenery had changed from forest to open bush, grass- + park-land. The Kaduna R. was reached at 10. Zungeru soon after 10.30 am, and Minna at 1 pm. Later there were fine rounded granite hills. I saw a few Duikers early in the evening. Arrived at Kaduna Junction soon after 8 pm., after nearly 24 hours in the train. It was quite dark. I was met by Mr. + Mrs. W. Morgan + was motored to their house. I sent my luggage + boy on to Kaduna Station, to be collected by lorry there. After a late dinner the Morgans + I went to the Club, where there was a dance. I met there Major Naylor (a fellow passenger in the “Apapa”) + Capt. Taylor, who had visited the P.R. Museum + given specimens. Got to bed at 1.30 am, + was right glad to do so.


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Sunday, 27th—            The Morgans + I (and “Judy”, a crossbred Labrador) motored to Zaria (c.52 miles). Road good in parts with good bridges. At one place a tree had fallen across the road + delayed us a little. Towards Zaria there were many granite Kopjes with huge boulders in fantastic forms, rocking stones etc. (very like the Matapo Hills scenery). The country was mainly open grass + low bush country, of ‘park-land’ type, but considerably cultivated – maize, guinea corn, ground-nuts, manioc, etc. The road crossed + recrossed the railway several times. We drove past the crumbling mud walls of the native town, which enclose a very large area, and went to the Residency where Daniel, the acting Resident, was awaiting us. He was at Lynam’s School as a boy, with Lewis. Daniel, Morgan + I motored into the native town, through a well preserved double gateway of laterite mud. We paid a visit to the Emir, who with his Vizier + other officials, after prostrating themselves took us into a small bare room in the mud ‘palace’. The room was vaulted with mud arches, the roof being supported upon rafters of borassus palm wood (white-ant proof) arranged as in sketch. The walls are of mud mixed with stones + very thick. Moulded decoration over entrances + on the vaulting-arches. Crowds of untidy swallows’ nests hung from the eaves + many small bats were


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hanging from the ceiling. We were given chairs + the Emir + his councillors crouched on the floor, the former on a mat. An old suit of chain armour + a chain-mail helmet with rivetted links were produced for me to see; evidently genuine + not imported stuff. After an audience of some time we left + went round the picturesque + scattered market. Wooden stocks were standing in one part ready for the unruly. I bought a neolithic celt (axe gatârin lightning arrâdu, or ‘thunderbolt’, according to the Hausa) for 1/-, and a cord-plaiting apparatus, on the ‘slipped loop’ principle with forked stick for 1/6, + 2 pottery lamps for 1 penny. Antimony or galena is much sold for darkening the eyes. Various ochres + other native dye-stuffs are sold, in addition to horrible imported aniline crystals. Cotton-cleaning + spinning are practiced in the market. Small skin flasks for antimony, pottery pipe-bowls, cotton cloth of native make, food-stuffs in great variety are displayed on small mats on the ground or on the little mud stoeps in front of the huts. Population mainly Hausa, with many Filani (largely owners of large-horned, humped cattle, contrasting with the very small Pagan cattle of the forest area. A good many horses are ridden, mainly poor specimens, but some nice-looking beasts. Large square angled stirrups + very harsh bits are used. The town walls, of mud, extend a very long way + formerly reached a granite Kopje on which the old town was built.


[---FACING PAGE: Two photographs, “73” and “74”, labelled: “The stocks in the market place, ZARIA.”; “Area dug out to procure laterite mud for building, ZARIA.” respectively. ---]


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                                    We returned to the Residency by the exit gate of the double gateways – one-way traffic being enforced. We found A.G. Webb and Capt. Mackie there. I arranged to return on Tuesday to Zaria + to motor with Daniel to Katsina. The Morgans + I started back to Kaduna at 5.30 pm. We passed several large herds of Filani cattle. Small baobabs + Ficus trees were conspicuous, but no very large trees. Country flat, except for granite kopjes, open + with extensive views. Colonel Merrick + two other men dined with the Morgans.


Monday, 28th.             Spent the morning writing + reading + going around with Mrs. Morgan. We had a look round Major Naylor’s very nice Garden. After lunch I prowled around during siesta time looking at birds (Coucals, red-billed shrikes, Pin-tailed whydah birds, estrildas, wood hoopoes, Bulbuls, sun-birds etc.). Later the Morgans + I motored to “the Gardens”, charmingly situated on the bank of the Kaduna R., across which could be seen a village of munshis who had settled there. A fine hedge of Anatto grows in the “Gardens”, + although rather neglected it is a delightful + quiet spot, a few miles from the town.


Tuesday 29th.              Walked round the Race-course with Mrs. Morgan + “Judy”. I lunched at Government House with the acting Lieut. Governor


[---FACING PAGE: Sketch of a bird, labelled: “Centropus monachus.”---]


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of the Northern Provinces (Mr. Brown), Mrs. And Miss Bertha Brown Capt. Taylor + an A.D.C. were also there. The Lieut. Governor was very friendly + affable (an old Hertford College man, under Boyd), + the lunch party was a very pleasant + genial one. A large cat reposed in the middle of the table through lunch. Later I was fetched by the Station Magistrate (Major Browne) from the Morgans, at 3.45 pm, to visit a Gwari village about three miles from Kaduna. On the way we looked round the native market of Kaduna. The sellers pay one penny a day for the privilege of selling the market. Yorubas as well as Hausas offer their wares. The market is not a specially interesting one. The Gwari village is hidden away in the bush + is isolated from Hausas + other folk. It is small + consists of tiny, round mud-walled + thatched huts + hut-like granaries, very close together. The doorways are low + inside the huts there is little ‘furniture’ or property. Inside the doorway of the living-huts stands a large earthenware pot for seed-corn used for sowing. The granaries are usually nearly the same size as the huts but have a slab-covered opening high up. These Gwari sleep on the floor, the space being extremely limited. They wear a goatskin hanging from one shoulder + wrapped round the body + their heads are shaved. The women appear to wear next to nothing. They are very dark-skinned, dirty, thin


[---FACING PAGE: Sketch, labelled: “Granary in Gwari village, nr. Kaduna.”---]


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and their faces are deeply scarred. Graves of the more important people are here + there in the village, covered over with a wide + thick layer of smoothed mud + with a horse-shoe shaped design in inset cowries encircling a mud boss at the head end. In the huts are mealing-stones, sloping ‘saddle’ querns, slightly concave + fixed in a mud staging, for fore-+-aft grinding with a flat stone. These mealing stones are single, or in pairs, or there may be several (I saw 24) together in one specially constructed hut for communal grinding; arranged all round the hut + sloping inwards. The men were mostly away chasing locusts + on their cultivation patches + they had taken their drums with them. Pots for soaking millet for making ‘beer’ were standing about the village, the water in many of them simply swarming with mosquito larvae. Hut doors consist of a panel of coarse, stiff mat-work. Which hangs by a wooden projection on a stretched stem of a climbing plant + can be slid along this. It came on to rain heavily + I got drenched while returning to the car. We got back to the Morgans at 6pm. + found a P.W.D. lorry waiting for my luggage. So I changed quickly + sent off the luggage + my boy. Dined with the Morgans + they motored me to Kaduna North Station to catch the 9.16 pm train to Zaria. I arrived at Zaria at midnight (due at 11.32 pm)


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                                    Was met by Daniel, the acting Resident + taken to the Residency.


Wednesday, 30th—     Daniel motored me to the native school, where I met Baylis, A.G. Webb + also Craig (of Aberdeen + formerly of Hertford Coll, Oxon), all connected with the school. I looked over the school buildings, class-rooms, compounds, dormitories (with hollow mud platforms for beds, the hollow space serving as hypocaust for warming. Then Baylis, Webb + I went round the native markets in the town + I bought a few things. We watched a deaf-mute Hausa man weaving on one of the narrow horizontal looms. The warp is very long indeed + is attached at the distal end to a trailing stone weight (Kun-Kuru, or ‘tortoise’, as it is aptly called, it being drawn along very slowly as the weaving progresses. The two heddles were worked with the feet upon stick treadles on bearings consisting of shoulder-blades of oxen. The usual comb-like ‘beater-in’ + canoe-shaped shuttle. We also watched a blacksmith at work on one of the open-bladed hoes, using a plain sausage-like bar hammer, thick + rounded, and a stone anvil. The side bars of the hoe-blade were split at the end + welded to the blade. Paired ‘bag’-bellows were used, the nozzle leading to a tuyere which is buried in + passes through a high mud screen leading the air-blast to the glowing embers.


[---FACING PAGE: Coloured sketch, labelled: “Mud platform bed with hypocaust for warming in native school, ZARIA.”---]


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The native sheep are very tall and lanky + these, with goats + pigeons are all over the streets. The younger children are usually stark naked, with a few ornaments + many have tribal face scars. Everyone very cheerful + enjoying a joke. Baylis came on to lunch at the Residency. In the late afternoon Daniel + I motored out about 7 miles to the Government Experimental farm, and went round it with Capt. Mackie. Saw some fine humped cattle, which are being crossed in endeavour to improve the yield of milk. We looked around the fields with crops of maize, cow-peas etc., + discussed the merits of experimental types of wooden ploughs, which it is hoped may be adopted by the natives. Some Darters (Plotus) flew over the farm + I heard wild Guinea fowl. We dined with Mackie, Lean (a locust expert) and another member of the staff. We motored back to Zaria though with difficulty, as the car’s lights were so dim that it was difficult to keep on the road + avoid disaster.


Thursday, 31st—         Webb came to breakfast + he + I went in Daniel’s small lorry to the school, where Webb mended the camp bed which Daniel was lending to me. We then went into the town to look around. Saw people at the dyeing-pits,


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dyeing cloth with indigo. The pits are very deep (c.12 feet) + filled to the brim, the scum is kept back with floating sticks. The sediment from the pits is made up into cakes + is burnt in heaps, to produce a white ash which serves as lye, or mordant, to be mixed with the indigo dye. Thatch-covers are placed over the pits when off duty. After being dyed to the required depth of blue, the cotton cloth is hammered with heavy, rounded wooden mallets [sketch] on a smooth tree trunk, to compact the seams + drive in the dye. Several men were doing this hammering, which is heavy work, keeping an excellent rhythm, which is varied from time to time. I bought in the market a cowrie covered basket, some antimony flasks, henna + henna-gauntlet (a long gourd worn by women while dyeing their hands + wrists), a musical instrument (zunguru) of gourd, + some circular platters. A woman, the wife of a snake charmer, brought a python (9-10 ft long) in a carved brass dish + put it out on the ground. It seemed quite tame + I picked it up and handled it without its showing resentment. She also performed on the zunguru which I had bought, sounding it with the hand (ball of left thumb) + the calf of the right leg, giving two notes. I bought a gourd gauntlet for henna-dyeing women’s hands


[---FACING PAGE: Photographs “75” and “76”, labelled: “Indigo-dyeing pits, ZARIA.”; “Woman with live python, ZARIA.”, respectively.---]


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I photo’d one of the old mud gateways + the old wall + moat + also some market scenes. We returned to the School + I met there Moore (a last year’s student of mine). Then we went to Webb’s bungalow – a circular mud building with circular, concentric inner room [sketch]. Conical roof of raphia-palm midribs supporting thatch; thick-walled and cool. Went back to Residency to lunch with Daniel. Calder, one of the Service cadets, who had come out in the “Apapa”, was lunching there also, on his way to Kaus. Hooded vultures are seen everywhere, very tame + walking about the compounds like chickens. Very fine day. At about 5.30 pm. I went for a walk to a granite Kopje about a mile away to look for Rock-rabbits (Hyrax), as it looked a likely place for them. I saw several of them + also some buzzards, collared Crows, hawks, many doves + bulbuls + some egrets. I came back over a low granite Kopje on the top of which I found a circular mancala ‘board’, cut very neatly in the rock surface + consisting of a dozen small circular pits or pockets arranged in a very accurate circle, with a little pile of stone in the centre, ready for playing. A storm was coming on + it was getting dark, so I returned to the house just in time to escape downpour. Torrential rain all night.


[---FACING PAGE: Photographs “71” and “70”, labelled: “Gateway in the town wall, ZARIA.”; “Fosse & ruined wall of ZARIA.”, respectively; two sketches, labelled: “Hooded vulture”; “Mancala ‘board’ cut on a smooth granite rock on a Kopje near ZARIA.”---]


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Friday, August 1st       Still raining but not heavily. I left my cabin trunk at the Residency, + Daniel + I started in his car at 9am. for Katsina, luggage going on in his lorry. Road very good considering the torrential rain. Before we started Calder came in + explained that he + others had left in the Kano train at midnight + that the train, when about 6 miles out of Zaria, had crashed through a culvert + 4 of the coaches had been derailed + had toppled over + down a 30 ft. embankment into a flood of dammed up rain water. Miraculously no one was killed + only one white man was badly hurt with dislocated shoulder + concussion. The loads were lost in the water + the four coaches completely smashed, including the restaurant-car. The other whites were members of the Kaduna polo-team.

                                    At our part of the road the new surface had been so badly cut up after the rain, that we had to leave the road + make a deviation route through the bush to pass the wash-out. Later we ran over a large dog, which had to be killed. Daniel is not good at slowing down to avoid dogs, etc. + there were several narrow shaves. It kept one on tenterhooks continually + greatly spoilt the pleasure of the motor run.


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We passed through a region of dorowa (‘locust bean’) trees, Borassus palms (‘Fan Palms’) and large baobabs. Extensive cultivation of millet, coco-yams, rice, cotton, etc. The bush became lower + more sparse, euphorbia bushes + thorn scrub being dominant. Many palms with branching stems. The country was becoming very open, flat + of the ‘semi-arid type. A good deal of flood-water was out. I saw a great many Buff-backed Cattle Egrets + numbers of Abdim’s Storks, which are very tame + frequent the compounds. Several Sacred Ibises were seen; also a Roller, Black-shouldered Kite, quantities of Hooded Vultures, black-+-yellow weaver birds, Guinea fowl, Francolins; some Golden Orioles, brilliant ‘Bishop weaver-birds (scarlet + black), plum-coloured estrilda finches (“animated plums”) + some Black Kites. We heard the peculiar trilling note attributed to a small bustard. On the road we saw several troupes of red monkeys (Patas monkeys) + some Ground squirrels. We passed many Filani women (Castle Filani), dark, tall + slender. We took the longer route via Yasha, to avoid an uncertain ferry across a river on the direct route. Arrived at the Walls of Katsina at 3.45 pm, having motored 173 miles. We passed through


[---FACING PAGE: Coloured sketch, labelled: “Abdim’s Stork”.---]


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a large recent mud gateway into the area enclosed by the 9-mile long mud walls which defend the town. The walls are very high + thick, but are crumbling away. There are many large buildings – all of mud construction with flat roofs; the Arabic library, prison, training school, Emir’s Palace, etc. + there are some large open spaces in the town, though the ordinary dwellings are very closely packed together + most of the streets are extremely narrow + tortuous. Practically all the building is of laterite mud + timbering of borassus palm stem. There is a large market-place. Plenty of horsemen were about, riding gaily-decked horses. Wide flat rectangular stirrups, or narrower ones with drooping ends. Camels were also numerous, many coming in with trading Tuaregs. Goats + kids, long-legged sheep, lambs + pigeons were everywhere, making driving very difficult. There are many extensive + deep hollows, where the laterite has been dug out for building houses, + these are partly filled with water completely overgrown with ‘water-lettuce’, densely covering the water. Passing out of the town through a gateway we drove to the Residency. Soon afterwards the Emir came up in state to visit us. A very affable, enlightened + progressive Emir, dark-skinned + generally smiling. He brought his


[---FACING PAGE: Two photographs, “78” and “79”, labelled: “The Residency, KATSINA.”; and two coloured sketches, labelled: “Fire-place in the Residency, KATSINA.”; “Characteristic doorway, KATSINA.”---]


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Vizier + two other officials (one the Treasurer) + they all squatted on the floor of the Residency. After they had gone we called on the D.O. (_____ [left blank] Reynolds, of St. Johns, Oxford) + we all motored in to the town market to look around it. We climbed up a sketchy stairway + through a trap-door to the top of the Prison tower, a very small flat roof from which we had a good view over the town. We dined with with [sic] Reynolds + met there Dr. + Mrs. Sandars, Mr. Baldwin (Education – of Christs, Cambridge and Miss Fegan, whom I had met before when she was working in Cambridge.


Saturday, 2nd—           We went to visit the Emir, who turned out his Guard of honour – quite an interesting crowd; one squad of horsemen in chain armour + indigo-dyed turbans, equipped with all-iron spears + oryx-hide shield of Tuareg type. Another squad wearing thick padded helmets with arched flat metal bars at the top [sketch], thick, quilted padded armour. Their horses were protected by the thick padded quilts which reached to the ground like a skirt, + wore elaborate head gear. These warriors carried cross-hilted swords. The horses were a bit restive. A bowman was also produced with long-bow + arrows some of which were iron headed + poisoned others blunt headed. The Emir took us into his house and


[---FACING PAGE: Two photographs, “81” and “82”, labelled: “The Emir’s body-guard, KATSINA.”---]


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showed his heirloom swords, the accuracy of whose ‘history’ seemed to me rather questionable. He also showed an old copper drum [sketch] of this type with single membrane, and a peculiar ancient cylindrical bucket made from plates of brass rivetted with iron. He also produced some very fine skin vessels +, at my request, promised to arrange for me to see the process of their manufacture, which was of special interest to me. He came with us to the native Training School to see some interesting antiquities preserved there, e.g. an old camel-gong of cast bronze (Tuareg), described by Daniel in “Man”, an unusually finely made, fluted brass greave with fixed spur, which had been dug up, but is of the Pagan type, + other antiquities. The Emir then accompanied us to a native house where the skin vessels, tandu, are made + we watched the whole process of separating the epidermis from the endodermis of a fresh cow-skin, shaving thin the edges of the latter + wrapping this membrane round a shaped core of air-dried clay so as to cover this completely. Handles or loops of the same material were merely pressed onto the sides + stuck firmly. For decoration cut out strips of the epidermis were stuck onto the outside with the hair exposed. The smallest sizes are made for containing antimony powder; larger ones for snuff + the largest of all


[---FACING PAGE: Two photographs, “80” and “83”, labelled: “Alhaji Muhamman Dikko / The Emir & part of his body-guard, KATSINA.”; “Tandu maker, splitting a fresh cowhide with spatulate knife.”, respectively; and three sketches, labelled: “old rivetted iron bucket”; “Fluted greave with prick-spur (Pagan type) KATSINA (school site)”; “Bronze camel-gong from Chaduwa, near Agie, in Tassawa”.---]


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are used for holding milk + for serving as charms. When the skin layers are dry, the clay core is broken up by hammering + the broken fragments + dust are emptied out + a skin flask made apparently without joins results. The Emir, who had not seen the process of manufacture, arranged for a complete set to illustrate it to be prepared for me. After this Daniel + [sic] went around the market + I bought 2 pairs of Hausa spurs (6d.) + some ancient beads (1/-). We watched some men weaving with the narrow, horizontal looms, as in Zaria. Visited the prison, which was fairly well filled. There was one youth under sentence of death, + a man whose similar sentence had been commuted. Most in gaol for theft. Nearly all wore leg-irons. There were interesting + varied types, many with tribal keloids or scars, or with tattooed skins.

                                    We dined with Dr. + Mrs. Sandars; Wilcox, Baldwin, Clarke + Reynolds also being present. Splendid, clear + mild night + we sat out in the garden till nearly 1 a.m.




Sunday, 3rd—              At 8 am. Daniel motored to the Emir’s compound, as he had invited me to see his tortoises, which were paraded in the courtyard for our benefit. There were


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 86. Market-place, KATSINA.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 88. Weaving narras cloth strips on the man’s loom, KATSINA.


{NEXT PAGE}         six enormous ones, the largest being as much as a strong man could lift, and four little ones which had been bred in the compound. They were very active + scattered about the yard. One of the biggest got under our car + got jammed under the exhaust + was with difficulty extricated. I got them lined up + photographed them, to the amusement of the crowd. The Emir also took us to see a colt which he had bred from an imported English stallion + one of his own mares, + also to see his peacocks of which he is very proud. He brought out to show me some strings of large agate beads of modern N. Nigerian make, exactly resembling those found in the Eastern Sudan + dug up at Manheim in Germany (P.R. Museum) + at Hams Hill, in Somersetshire. He + Daniel had seen these beads being made, but grinding the agate in grooves on granite boulders (This probably explains the “Roman inscription” groove so described by Harris in a recent paper). In the market I bought one of the forked-stick knitting (‘slipped loop’) instruments from the operator; also some beads + Agades silver crosses. The Emir had given me two aces with U-shaped iron blades, with double-tang hafting. We went to a potter’s hut + the woman potter made a pot for us—exactly in the way described by Nicholson from Sokoto, in every detail, with strong roller for decorating, etc.


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 84.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 85.

                                    {label inbetween photos:} The Emir’s tortoises, KATSINA.

                                    {sketch. Label:} Axe with loop-shaped blade and double tanged hafting, KATSINA. From the SANKARAWA FILANI, of the MARUSA district.


{NEXT PAGE}         Miss Fegan, Baldwin came in to lunch at the Residency. After tea Daniel + I went + collected Reynolds + Dr. Sandars + we all went out to the big leper camp, some way outside the town walls along the Sokoto road, where 190 are segregated. Some terrible cases of leprosy are there + some of the patients are appalling sights. There have been several cures, or partial curse, by intravenous injection (administered with great skill by native dispensers). Some babies born of leper parents are perfectly healthy + are kept with the parents. Next we visited the native hospital also administered by Dr. Sandars, where I saw some cases of sleeping sickness. We dined with Dr. McCullough, who is engaged on bacterial research, with a large stock of guinea-pigs, rats, mice + also a small Monitor lizards (Varanus) caught in his compound. Dr. + Mrs. Sandars + Reynolds also were there. I made great friends with an African Grey parrot, which was very civil + amusing. We returned to the Residency at 11 pm. There were many hares + Guinea fowls along the road at night, + also nightjars. It had rained during the afternoon + at night I was awakened by the rain coming through the mud ceiling of my room, splashing onto the top of the mosquito net of my camp bed + descending upon me as a fine drizzle. It was a hot night + this drizzle was rather refreshing, so I turned over + went to sleep. I don’t know how long it continued.


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 89. Knitting with Y-shaped ‘slipped-loop’ apparatus, KATSINA.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 87. Woman potter, with completed pot (unbaked), KATSINA.


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Monday, 4th—            After breakfast Daniel + I went to the Emir’s compound to see the tandu-making set which had been prepared for me. A very complete series. I partially split oxskin was sent to the hospital for pickling + packing. I also got from the Emir a peculiar, spear-shaped, push-plough used about 5 miles from Katsina, for turning up the surface soil for cultivation, + also a Hausa saddle-bag. After revisiting the native hospital, we went to Reynold’s house + met several young Govn’t official, including Capt. Philips (late of Exeter Coll., Oxon). I had two prowls round after birds during the day + saw many Cattle Egrets, Abdim’s Storks, some Rollers, many Hooded Vultures, etc. After tea Daniel + I motored along a bye-road + entered the town enclosure by one of the old, narrow + unaltered gateways, which I photographed. We went into a small native (pre-Filani) compound to see one of the mosquito-proof huts, built on piles + entered by a trap-door in the floor. The people sleep in this when mosquitos are bad; the thatch comes right down to the floor + there are no windows. (These mosquito proof sleeping huts are described by Barth in his travels). I also photo’d the granaries in this compound. Close by was a large tree completely covered with nests of yellow + black weaver birds, hundreds of birds flocking in


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 90. One of the old, unaltered, gateways in the city wall, KATSINA.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 91. Mosquito-proof hut on piles, with ordinary hut and a granary in background. Pre-Filani, KATSINA.


{NEXT PAGE}         the tree. In another tree were two nests of Abdim’s Storks. We then motored down some of the very narrow, winding street, + got completely stuck in one, unable to proceed or to turn. After much effort the car was pulled + lifted round by a good-humoured crowd. Passing through the big open space in the town we saw some Tuaregs milking their camels. We went on to the native cemetery, where the graves are covered with the halves of large broken pots from end to end. The covering earth was largely washed away + most of the graves were partly opened, perhaps by prowling jackals or hyaenas. A few of the graves had ‘saddle’ guerus or mealing stones as head-stones. We had ‘sundowners’ with the Sandars, who with Miss Fegan, Miss (Dr.) Lowe + Reynolds came to dinner at the Residency.


Tuesday, 5th—            We had breakfast with Reynolds. Daniel went off with his car + lorry back to Zaria, I went + did my packing + then went to Dr. Sandars house + sat with Mrs. Sandars waiting for the post-lorry came with my luggage to fetch me. Miss Fegan came in to say goodbye to me. After a long wait the post-lorry arrived + after calling at the D.O’s office to say goodbye to Reynolds, who had been most helpful in making all arrangements, I started


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 92. Granaries in a pre-Filani compound, KATSINA.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 93. Grave with the body covered with the halves of large pots, in the native cemetery, KATSINA.


{NEXT PAGE}         for Kano in the lorry at 1 pm. Road good almost all the way + the lorry traveled mostly at 30-45 m.p.h. On the road I met Shirley + another member of the Katsina polo team, returning to Katsina after winning the polo cup for the first time. I had a short chat with them. The country is heavily cultivated—chiefly millet. I saw a Centropus (‘concal’) a Pallid Harrier, several Sacred Ibises, Abdim’s Storks + Cattle Egrets. The road runs very straight as the country is level. Baobabs are very abundant. We arrived at Kano post-office at 4 pm (107 miles in 3 hours). I went first to the Railway Rest house to arrange for a room, in case the Resident was not expecting me. Then to the Residency, where the Resident (H.O. Lindsell, formerly a Bible Clerk at All Souls) was expecting me although Daniel’s telegram had not reached him. I was given a very jolly suite in the house. I dined alone with Lindsell.


Wednesday, 6th—       Raining hard early, but it cleared later + became fine. Capt. Leonard came for me at 9 am. + we motored into the town which is extremely large, with a few wide (recently widened) streets + vast numbers of very narrow, rambling lanes. The old defensive mud walls are some 16 miles long +


{NEXT PAGE}         enclose not only the town but much agricultural land. The walls, where still well preserved are very high +have crenelated tops. They are of great thickness; they are rapidly disintegrating + little is done to preserve them, the cost of which would be immense. There are 15 or 16 original gateways, some of them almost too narrow for a car to pass through. In some of them the old iron pin-hinged doors remain. Many of the houses have their fronts decorated in moulded mud designs of bold, barbaric type. We hunted about for weavers, + found some down a back street—men using the narrow loom. I bought a complete man’s loom with its ‘tortoise’ drag, for 2/-. In another part I bought a saddle cloth + saddle cover (embroidered) from a leather worked for 18/-, some old agate beads for 4/-, 2 agate pendants for 6d, + 2 pottery pipes for a penny. We watched a shoe-maker at work, making a shoe with thick raw cow-hide sole + decorated leather uppers; excellent work. Next we visited the indigo-dyeing pits, which resemble those at Katsina, but the pits are largely capped with cement + are therefore neater. I photographed the scene. Then we went to see the tanning + dyeing of skins for leather. The goat-+sheep-skins are soaked in a mixture which loosens the hair, which is then scraped off with a two-handled spokehave knife {sketch}. For scraping, the skin was laid


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 94. Decorated front of a mud house, KANO.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 97. Man weaving with narrow, horizontal loom, KANO.


{NEXT PAGE}         over an old wooden mortar set diagonally in the ground, {sketch} the operator sitting on a small seat in front. The skin is then suppled by drawing it under the bare foot. Dyeing red is effected with dye obtained by pounding up the bright coloured spathes of a cane stalk—a deep bright red colour being obtained; a second dipping in another liquid (?lye) turns the colour into an orange red. Both the tan yard + dyeing pits are characterized by an appalling smell. We also watched the preparing of sweetmeats in native style. Honey + other sweet substances are warmed in a large calabash over a small, smoky fire; a mass is scraped out in a very sticky state + is stuck over a hook fixed in a tree trunk. The stuff is then drawn out by hand into a long rope, which is folded up repeatedly + re-drawn out. When it is beginning to set + harden it is drawn out again into a thin rope several yards long, which becomes brittle + is then broken up into 6 inch sticks ready for consumption.

                                                The market is very large + interesting, though imported shoddy European goods are tending to oust native products. There is still, however, plenty of the native goods. There are many Borassus palms + big trees in the town, a very picturesque feature. Huge excavation pits water-filled + covered with ‘water-lettuce’ occur frequently as in Katsina.


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                                    {photo. Label:} 98. Making sweetmeats from honey, etc. KANO.


{NEXT PAGE}         Dr. Millar (missionary) came to lunch with the Resident. I spent the early afternoon writing, with a large yellow + grey lizard close beside my chair on the balcony of my room, from which I could watch the birds. A Hooded Vulture had a nest in a small tree quite close to the house + many vultures were around. Some Red-billed Hornbills (Lophoceros) were also in the trees nearby, calling loudly; + several Cattle Egrets + Collared Crows were around. Later on the Resident + I went to visit the Emir by appointment. A posse of his cavalry met the car on the road + galloped in front + behind as an escort—a fine effect of barbaric equipment + colour. The Emir received us in state with the Vizier, the Treasurer + other officials. He is very different to the Emir of Katsina, + inherited his position; he is more conservative + less progressive; but courteous + dignified. After an audience in a large, elaborately decorated room, with moulded designs of very barbaric type in relief, the Emir took us to see some of the other rooms, also very ornate + with china bowls inset in the vaulted mud ceilings. The Council Chamber has very wide-spanned vaulting + the usual inset porcelain bowls. Lindsell + I drove through the town to Dala Hill. The climb up was very slippery, the wet laterite giving little foot-hold. From the top we had a splendid view over the widespread town. All the houses are mud-built


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 96. Indigo-dyeing pits, KANO.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 95. The same.


{NEXT PAGE}         with flat roofs, often with {small sketch} projections along the edges. The town is divided into “quarters” (with an Arab quarter, alien-natives quarter etc). A Tuareg caravanserai lies outside the walls. This view gave an excellent idea of the town as a whole. We afterwards drove to another hill on the top of which a large reservoir has been built in connection with the elaborate + costly water works scheme in progress. The water is pumped from the Hadejia River about 14 miles away. The reservoir is covered in. Pipes were being laid in the town. We then drove a good way round the outside of the town walls, passing several of the old gateways, whose large pin-hinged gates are closed at about 9.30 pm—only a ‘moral’ protection, since the walls in places where they have crumbled down are easily scrambled over. Where still intact the tops of the walls are loop-holed {small sketch}. We got back after dark, having surprised a good-sized jackal on the road.


Thursday, 7th—          I went to breakfast with Lieut. Com. J.H. Carrow (Provincial officer), who took me to see the various native administration departments—the Treasury, Taxation + Census Bureaux. We attended the Native Court, presided over by the Alcade


{NEXT PAGE}         who has full power, seated on a raised dais of mud. The scribes + other Court officials squatting on the floor on either side. Litigants + witnesses squatted on the floor in the center + were organized by the usher, while the Alcade interrogated them. Women did not appear in Court, but where in a room separated from the Court + communicating only through a small barred window at which the usher stood as intermediary between the Alcade + the woman outside, who could not be seen. The option of taking oath is not always accepted. Most of the cases were divorce-suits. One of these was granted by the Alcade + the man’s payment or present to his fiancée had to be returned to him in Court. It was promptly handed to him + dumped on the floor before him. It amounted to one + fourpence! As I could not see the lady I could form no opinion as to whether the original bargain had been a good one. Swallows flew around the Court; bats were hanging from the ceiling + pigeons were resting inside in any convenient niches. I was next deposited by Carrow at the Survey Office + Mr. Morphy, the head of the department, took me round, the map-making + printing sections, where very good work is done. Native map-drawing is quite good. Books + magazines are also printed there, both in English + Arabic. I lunched with Mr. And


{NEXT PAGE}         Mrs. Morphy + then returned to the Residency. At 5 pm, Major Trench (a friend of Miss Fry, of Somerville Coll. Oxford) came to motor me out to the Hadejia R. to see the new water-pumping station. The river was only about half full + some of the sand-banks were exposed. It runs completely dry during the day (Harmatan) season, + water is pumped from far below the river bed. We got into a boat + were rowed across to one of the concrete wells built through the sand bed. These concrete wells are built high above high water level + the well shaft descends through the sand to the granite bed-rock 40 or 50 feet below. There are at present three of these wells, + water is pumped from them into a low-level reservoir near the river + pumping station. Thence it is pumped through 14 inch iron pipes to the high-level reservoir on the hill near the town, 14 miles distant. We climbed up a small iron ladder to the top of one of the wells, about 25 or 30 feet from the water + looked down the deep shaft. Recrossing the river we went round the pumping plant, which is on a big scale + elaborate. The furnaces are fed with coal from the Enugu mines. On returning to Kano we went to have drink with Mrs. Leith Ross + Miss Green + stayed till about 8, when I went back to the Residency to dine. I had met both Mrs. Leith Ross + Miss Green during the War, when


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                                    {newspaper clipping from the Times 23-2-193x on Waterworks and Electric light at Kano. Text not reproduced here. See original or photocopy.}


{NEXT PAGE}         I inspected the hospital at St. Rom, in which they were doing war-work. Miss Green had been with Miss Dorothy Garrod during some of her excavation work.


Friday, 8th—               Before breakfast as great crowd arrived in front of the Residency, + I was informed that the Emir had sent his army to parade before me. So I hurried down + found a mass of assorted cavalry + infantry + details, drawn up in squads. As at Katsina, there was a cavalry squad in chain armour + indigo-dyed turbans, carrying the Tuareg all-iron spears + oryx-hide shields (these function as mounted infantry); a second squad in quilted armour + metal-mounted padded headgear, carrying swords, whose horses were protected with thick quilted armour reaching the ground. A prime function of these is to line up with their backs to the enemy in close formation, so as to form a defensive screen for light infantry armed with Dane guns, who crawl between the horses legs + can fire crouching behind the quilted screen. These padded horsemen seemed to be hung with so many gadgets that they are very awkward. When their horses were restive their padded helmets fell off or slipped over their faces. They rather resembled so many “White Knights”. The leader, or C. in C., was a fine looking dignified


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 99. Part of the Emir’s army—at the Residency, KANO.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 101. Light cavalry of the Emir of KANO.

                                    {inserted photo. Top. Front label:} 102.

                                                {back of photo:} Heavy cavalry of the Emir of KANO, with heavy quilted armour on men + horses.

                                    {inserted photo. Bottom. Front label:} 103.

                                                {back of photo:} Photo showing one function of the heavy cavalry, to turn backs towards the enemy, the quilted armour of the horses serving as screen to infantry with muskets.


{NEXT PAGE}         man + rode a very gaily caparisoned horse, with silver-mounted trappings obtained from Tripoli + head-stall hung with a great number of triangular pendants. There was a file of infantry armed with flint-lock ‘Dane’ guns (with Brandon-made gun-flints). A few bowmen carrying wooden bows of {sketch}-shape; the bowstring fixed a the lower end + slipped over a lateral nock at the {sketch to left} upper end. The arrows mostly had nocks completely encased in plaited grass work, + poisoned iron heads. One wild-looking individual carried a sheaf of throwing knives {sketch} of this form. A ‘band’ of mounted musicians sang wild raucous songs, with a comic leader who seemed a little touched in the head + dismounted to give a grotesque dance. Their singing was accompanied by harsh, unmusical blasts on a side-blast trumpet of horn (?Bushbuck). A more interesting group of three musicians were on foot; 2 playing primitive 2-stringed lutes {sketch} with parchment enveloped resonators + strings merely wrapped round the end of the neck. Played with a plectrum consisting of two large cowrie shells tied together end to end, {sketch}. A long flat, thin iron blade with small loose rings attached all round both edges, was fixed in the end of each lute neck, to serve as a jingle.


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 100. Infantry with flint-lock muskets.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 106. Cavalry musicians, the leader on the left. KANO.


{NEXT PAGE}         The third performer in this group had a gourd rattle which he shook and struck against the palm of his left hand, which had cowries in groups of three tied to the fingers inside the palm. {sketch} A mounted stranger from the North, temporarily in the Emir’s service, dismounted and performed a dance symbolizing scouting for an enemy. I examined the chain mail of the cavalry + found that it consisted for riveted links of the eastern type, + not the ‘jumped’ links of European make. The whole parade was very effective as a colour effect + extremely noisy. I dashed them 100 kola nuts + they all filed off towards the palace, apparently satisfied. I then had breakfast with Lindsell; after which I went in Lindsell’s lorry to visit Dr. Burney’s research laboratory at Bompai, some miles away. He is working upon Relapsing fever, but so far no definite results have been obtained. The laboratory is to be moved to Zaria. Returning to the Residency I motored with Lindsell into the town to a quarter where pottery is made, + watched two women making pots by the same process as in Sakoto + Katsina, on a concave-surfaced circular rest of clay fixed in the ground. Short cards (mazaniya) are used, or twigs (or flower spikes) from a low bush from which the fluffy


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 104. Officer of the heavy (quilted) cavalry, KANO.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 105. Commander-in-chief of the Emir’s forces, KANO.

                                    {text at bottom of page:} Other mazaniya are made of raphia palm fibre, plaited in spiral form.

                                    {inserted photo. Label:} 107.

                                                {back of photo:} Musicians attached to the Emir’s xx, KANO.


{NEXT PAGE}         offshoots are broken away with the thumb-nail, leaving low projections for decorating by rolling there along the wet clay just below the rim of the pot—or sometimes all over the sides. A small triangular piece of gourd rind is used for impressing a series of cuneiform indents for decoration. The pot-shape is built from one lump of clay of the size required, using pestles of pottery inside against outside hand-resistence. The rim is formed from a long ‘sausage’ of clay applied like a collar around 1 ½ inches thick. Spatulate beaters are used for thinning + shaping the sides.

                                                After tea Mrs. Leith Ross + Miss Green came in their car + we went for a prowl round the native market. I bought four pairs of Hausa spurs, + also 4 circular basketry platters (6d each). We visited an iron-worker’s hut, in which the paired bellows were of the skin-bag type, with large pottery tuyere rained to form a screen. After looking round Mrs. Ross’ school for native girls, which is inside the town + surrounded by a high mud wall, we went to her house, into which she had moved that morning, for drinks. I dined at the Residency + packed till midnight.


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                                    {sketch of a potter making a pot. No label.}



Saturday, 9th.               Up at 6.15 am + at 7.30 Mr. Butler came to take me over the Middle- + Training Schools, which occupy a very large compound. I went round the greater part of the work-rooms, class-rooms, dormitories etc. Some quite good ‘arts + crafts’ work is done—some of the metal work being really excellent. Back to breakfast at the Residency, after which Lindsell took me to the station for the 10.15 am train to Kaduna {crossed out word}; the luggage + my boy having gone by lorry. When the train reached “mile 619” (from Lagos) about 6 miles from Zaria, all the passengers had to leave the train + walk half a mile or so to another train, in order to pass the spot where the line was broken at the time of the big smash at about 1.30 a.m. on August 1st. We had to walk past the scene of the disaster + saw the remains of the four coaches lying at the bottom of the 30 ft embankment. The flood-lake had disappeared. The changing trains involved a long delay. The deviation line was nearly completed + an engine was testing it, apparently successfully, judging by the cheers of the workers. Time was made up later. At Zaria, Daniel met the train + we had tea together in the restaurant car, with Mr. Brooke who had very kindly seen to my luggage.


{NEXT PAGE}         Daniel went back to the Residency, + I travelled on to Kaduna North with Mr. Brooke, who again undertook to get my luggage transferred at Kaduna Junction into the train for Jos. A.G. Webb met me at Kaduna North + whisked me off in his side car to the Rest House, where he was staying, to have a talk, after which he ran me to Kaduna Junction, quite a long way, to pick up the Jos train. There was a long wait at the station, the train leaving at 10 pm (due out at 9.45).


Sunday, 10th—            After a beastly night journey in an old-fashioned train, on a very hard seat without bedding, + over a very jolty line, which prevented any sleep, I found that the train was on the plateau, as soon as it was daylight. The plateau country is very open + almost treeless; heavily cultivated, evidently with considerable care. Granite hills all around + the scenery very attractive + unlike anything on the lower levels. I saw some Crowned Cranes near Kagoro. The Pagan women were working in the fields, wearing nothing but a small bunch of leaves in front + a small piece of cloth hanging behind.

                                                Arrived at Jos at 10 a.m. + was met by the D.O.


{NEXT PAGE}         P.F. Masterton Smith, M.C., who motored me to the Residency to stay with Mr. + Mrs. Hale Middleton. Middleton, the Resident, was at Hertford Coll. Oxon. Beautiful situation with wide views over the Bauchi plateau + granite hills in all directions. 4100 ft above sea level, cool + even cold at times. Garden round the Residency very nice, Mrs. Middleton being a keen gardener. Sunbirds, brilliant Bishop Finches + Hooded Vultures were numerous. It rained hard during the afternoon. Mr. Leau(locust expert), who had come in my train on his way to Lake Chad, came in to dinner.


Monday, 11th—          Went to see the collection of ancient finds at the Secretariat, + I was shown the specimens by Mr. Russell all collected in the tin-mining area. The palaeoliths are the most interesting + include examples of the ‘cleaver’ type, but there are many Neolithic celts. Also some old iron currency bars, cast bronze armlets + pottery of ancient types. In the late afternoon the Middletons + I motored to Naraguta to see Mr. Matthews’ garden, which is wonderful in the variety of flowers, fruit + vegetables. It is very overgrown + crowded, however. Birds in the garden very numerous (Bishop finches, sunbirds, estrilda finches etc etc). Mr.


{NEXT PAGE}         Matthews took us to see his tin mine close by, where the tin ore was being washed out of the laterite beds by running water. The labourers were earning 9d a day + were working in the water most of the time.


Tuesday, 12th.             In the morning the Middletons, the D.O., T. Macdonald (late Hockey blue + S. African Rhodes Scholar) motored to Vom (c. 30 miles away) to see a Beróm (Pagan) village. It came on to rain heavily + I went on with Macdonald, as the Middletons went back to Jos. We watched an iron-smith at work on a hoe blade which was forged in two parts + welded together; anvil of stone + round bar-hammer used. The bellows used were of the membrane-and-stick type, a pair worked by one man + an odd one by another. The bellows were of large size, + a high mud screen enclosed the tuyere. The village is surrounded by a high cactus hedge + is crowded with small living-huts + store-huts or granaries which are grouped in family compounds. A feature of the village is the bridal hut, where a bridge is kept secluded + unseen for some days after marriage. It is a small round hut of mud, thatched over, with very small round entrance + a minute upper floor approached through a hole in the floor, through which I had difficulty in squeezing. In the upper ‘room’ was a small raised mud bench serving


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{full page sketch. Label:} BEROM bellows-workers in a smithy, VOM, BAUCHI PLATEAU.


{NEXT PAGE}         as bed, which must be exceedingly uncomfortable, as part of the surface was occupied by a clay lid covering a hole in which food is stored. In the cultivated areas around there is simple terracing, with low walls of large stones banking up the earth on the slopes. I photographs {sic} some of the Beróm natives, the men mostly stark naked, the women with bunch of leaves in front + a small fan-like pendant of palm leaf behind, + I bought a native pipe from one of the men. Macdonald + I went on to Hos, leaving the car at a rest-house + walking cross-country for 2 miles or so to a Beróm village which was hidden away in bush on a granite Kopje (or range), the walking was very bad, horribly slippery with laterite mud. The village took some finding + as time was running short we had only time enough for a casual look round + a visit to an iron-smith who was using the same equipment as we had seen at Vom, with the triple bellows as before. We walked + slid back to the car, + returned through drenching rain to Jos, getting there at 2.15 pm, thoroughly wet + dirty. It continued to rain + I got no walk in the afternoon. Macdonald + a man + his wife came to dine at the Residency.


Wednesday, 13th.        I was up by 6.30 am + went to the Secretariat at 7.30 + put in 1 ½ hours work sketching some of the stone implements


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 15. BEROM women at VOM.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 16. The same, back view, showing the fan-shaped ‘tails’.

                                    {sketch. Label:} Iron greave with spur, BEROM, VOM.


{NEXT PAGE}         and other objects there, before breakfast. Got back to the house at 9. At 10 the Resident + I motored to Toro, to see round the native training school. Mr. Hogben + Mr. Slee, who are in charge, took us round the class rooms + compound where natives of several Pagan tribes live. The Pagan bush natives are extraordinarily quick in the uptake, learning to read + write English very quickly + they are keen + diligent. In the compound a variety of native musical instruments were produced + played upon. I photod some of the groups of Pagans, who had not adopted clothing. Facial markings often elaborate + very neatly cut all over the face; women with marks cut on the body (chest) as well as on the face. A native, with two satellites, gave a song + dance descriptive of a gathering watching the arrival of aeroplanes, very amusing + clever mimicry. The school seems to be run on practical lines, the natives being encouraged to live their ordinary life as far as possible + not to think that exotic clothing is necessary. They seem to be very contented. On the way back to Jos we saw a huge flight of locusts, looking like thick brown mist away to the S.W. + passing northward. It rained on + off during the afternoon. I wrote, read + went out for short walks. I also packed with the intention of sleeping in the


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                                    {top photo. On photo itself are the letters A and B and C Label:} 17. TANGALE musicians at TORO. A—Hour-glass-shaped drum; B—End-flute; C—long bamboo trumpet

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 19. WAJA men dancing with erectile tails, TORO. WAJA wearing dance tails

                                    {inserted photo. Top. Label:} 22.

                                                {back of photo:}BEROM women + children, at TORO.

                                    {inserted photo. Middle. Label:} 21.

                                                {back of photo, difficult to read:} Berom women, Toro

                                    {inserted photo. Bottom. Label:} 20.

                                                {back of photo:} WAJA women at TORO.


{NEXT PAGE}         station on the train (for Kafanchan) as it was due to leave early in the morning. But the train had not been reported from Kafanchan (some 5 hours away) + did not reach Jos till midnight (instead of early in the afternoon), having been held up by a wash-out between Kaduna + Kafanchan. So I spent the night at the Residency. Matthews (one of the 1929 cadet students at Oxford) came in to dinner. I said goodbye to the Middletons overnight, in view of an early start in the morning.


Thursday, 14th—        Up at 6 am. Got the lorry loaded with my luggage + boy + I rode to the station on the lorry. The station was seething with chattering + shouting natives. Masterton Smith, the D.O., came to see me off + got a compartment reserved for me. Train started at 7.40 am. While still on the Plateau I saw a Hammerkop (Scopus) near Bukára. There were also Cattle Egrets, white-winged Spreus, Crowned Cranes, + a River Cormorant (Ph. Africanus) on a patch of cultivation near Kagoro. The pagan women around Kagoro were weaving peculiar mushroom-shaped ‘tails’ behind + the usual bunch of leaves in front, + nothing else; the men not even that much. Their hoes have enormous iron blades with the tang passing through the haft + projecting


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                                    {photo. Label:} 18. TERA men and their wives {arrow}. One man playing upon a marimba with cow-horn resonators.

                                    {left sketch. Label:} hoe-blade

                                    {middle left sketch. Label:} Hoeing.

                                    {text in middle of sketches:} KAGORO women

                                    {middle right and right sketches. Label:} Carrying hoe on head + wearing mushroom-shaped tail.


{NEXT PAGE}         above as a long narrow bar, serving partly for handhold + partly, probably, to increase the weight. Arrived at Kafanchan Junction at 12.15 pm. + I changed across into the train for Makurdi. I was met by Capt. C.R.Niven(Balliol) who took me to the bungalow of the D.O. (D.V. Williams, of St. Johns, Oxon). We went on to Dr. F.L.G. Selby’s house for lunch. It rained steadily until about 5.30 pm, when we all walked out 2 miles or so to the Falls on the river, following the railway most of the way there. The going was very wet + rough + our legs got drenched. I got a badly rubbed foot (which with difficulty was prevented going septic + which lasted for some weeks). I had borrowed an old pair of slacks from Williams, so as to keep mine dry for travelling. The Falls are very fine + picturesque a wide, vertical fall with good body of water, in very attractive surroundings. We clambered down to the river below, to view the Falls from there, but did not stop long as the bush was alive with tsetse fly. We got back to the D.O.’s bungalow (a very ‘bush’ one) just as it got dark. I walked the 1 ½ miles to the Station with a boy + lantern, to change my wet things, + returned to the bungalow to dine with the D.O + the others. I went back to the station at 10.30 pm. To sleep on the train,


                                    {inserted, loose-leaf photos. Many have numbers on their backs.}

                                    {photo 1. back of photo:}Kaláb {Katab?} woman 3

                                    {photo 2. three people standing around large basin, 2 with long pestels?. Back of photo is difficult to read:} Kaláb {Katab?}women. Izaria Ivo, pounding guinea corn

                                    {photo 3. frontal photo of a woman in front of a thatched building. Back of photo:}Kagoro tribe. Plateau Province.

                                    {photo 4. Group of 6 people in front of thatched building. Some facing forwards, some facing backwards. Back of photo:}Kagoro tribe


{NEXT PAGE}         Niven kindly coming with me with lantern (much needed as there was a lot of standing water about, + it was pitch dark. I turned in in my compartment, but sleep was quite impossible as mosquitoes + sandflies gave no peace. An unpleasant not to say a beastly night!


Friday, 15th—             The train started from Kafanchan at 5.45 am. Still quite dark. I got up at 7 when we were in the “Kloof” (a very long ‘hairpin’bend probing deeply into the escarpment of the Plateau. Scenery fine, mainly bush tending towards forest growth. Rest of the journey was through fairly dense bush. We crossed a fairly large river (? The Mama) which was raging down in heavy spate. The train arrived at Makurdi North, on the Benue R., at 3.20 pm. I was met by the D.O. (K. Dewar), who took me across the Benue R. to Makurdi South in the Residents launch (my luggage + boy crossed in the train ferry some hours later). The Resident, W. Pembleton, came down with his car + took me to the Residency. Mrs. Izard (next-door neighbour to the Burns at Ikoyi, Lagos) + Mrs. Moorhouse were staying there, so I was given a circular mud + thatch guest house in the compound. Very nice. Weather delightful + much warmer than on the Bauchi Plateau. My luggage did


{NEXT PAGE}         not arrive until 8.15 pm + I had to hustle to get dressed for dinner. Dewar + Beaver (?) dined with the Pembletons, + Major B. Glasson, M.C., came round afterwards before starting on home leave. During the afternoon while looking at the very fine view from the Residency garden over the Benue R., which is ¾ to 1 mile wide, I saw a couple of Kob antelopes quite near. They were of a warm red colour + though wild examples, were fearless, as no shooting is allowed. I made friends with “Kinkie”, a small rowet monkey in the garden. I was urgently invited to accept a small tame baboon, but resisted the temptation.


Saturday, 16th—          Beautiful sunny day. Mrs. Pembleton very nobly cut my hair, which badly wanted it, as I had been trying to keep it within bounds with a safety razor, apparently with indifferent results. She also dealt with Mrs. Izard’s hair on the Residency verandah. I went with Dewar to the Administration Office to see a quantity of Munshi objects, which were temporarily confiscated in connection with some ritualistic + cannibalistic performances, which were under investigation. There were several skulls, some elaborately decorated with abrus seeds, or with tin-foil + some hung with brass bells (cire perdue castings), A large number of “voice disguisers” or wood, bone + cast-brass,


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 27. Decorated skulls, MUNSHI.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 29. Decorated skulls mounted on bones for carrying, MUNSHI.

                                    {inserted photo. Top. Label:}28.

                                                {back of photo:} Decorated skulls, MUNSHI.

                                    {inserted photo. Bottom. Label:} 30.

                                                {back of photo:} Decorated skulls mounted on bones for carrying, MUNSHI.


{NEXT PAGE}         fitted with vibrating membranes of spiders’ egg-cases, or with a very think skin (? Bats’ wing). Some spears with huge leaf-shaped socketed blades, with ogee-sections. Human figures of wood + of cast brass (‘cire perdue’) made by the Munshis themselves. Bows + arrows; knives with very elaborate brass cire perdue castings on the sheath + pendant pellet bells. A leopard disguise dress completely covering the body + a mass of other juju objects. A most interesting series, but rapidly deteriorating under insect-attacks, dust + knocking about. I went round with Dewar to his bungalow to see his specimens including some remarkable Munshi pipes. In the afternoon Pembleton, Dewar, Macfarlane (A.D.O.) + I motored out to a Munshi village about 9 miles away, towards Abinsi. The village head-man came out to meet us. The huts are of mud + thatch, the mud walls being ornamented with pitted designs. In the central space of the village stood a hollow log going (about 5 ft x 1 ½ ft), quite plain with rectangular, narrow slit. A number of men exhibited a variety of dances, moving in a circle with vigorous posturings, in perfect rhythm, to the accompaniment of drums {sketch} of this type (? Hausa) + others, bell-shaped iron gongs, struck with a stick {sketch}; also an algaita like oboe. Many songs were sung


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 26. Huts in a MUNSHI village, near MAKURDI.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 24. MUNSHI dancers.


{NEXT PAGE}         some of quite an intriguing character, dramatic, in perfect time + exhibiting a rudimentary harmonization. Usually a leader sang a refrain in a high-pitched voice + the large chorus followed after each verse, the combined choruses being very accurately rendered. The noise was very great but the effect pleasing. Curious little wooden or brass stemmed trays are used in snuff-taking, some with rungs to slip over a finger. Women were grinding meal on sloping saddle-querus with with fore-+-after motion of the upper stone. Munshi ride horses bare-backed, with their feet well under the horses belly. Cicatrization + tattooing are both practiced with great variety of design. The cicatrization is often extremely neatly + cleverly executed in symmetrical designs, especially on the abdomens of women. I took some photographs both of men + women. When we returned to the car the crowd came with us. The old headman was greatly impressed + puzzled when allowed to press buttons etc + sound the hooter + claxon + switch the lights on + off. His expression of fascinated amazement was a study. The crowd roared with laughter, effectively displaying their filed central incisors {sketch}.

                                    Mr. Shannon, Beaver (?) + Macfarlane dined at the Residency.


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 25. MUNSHI woman with elaborate cicatrized pattern on abdomen.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 26. Group of MUNSHI {arrow on photo} with the old chief {arrow}, in village near MAKURDI.


{NEXT PAGE}        

Sunday, 17th—            Mrs. Pendleton motored me to the Govn’t Office, where I spent a long time examining + sketching the Munshi specimens. I bought from a Hausa trader a very fine ceremonial axe (Munshi) + brass armletx (ib), some Mada ivory armlets, Munshi ivory finger-rings, spear-heads, achatina-shell girdle ({female sign}), woman’s girdle of oil palm nut shells (?) and stone beads; + some Mada grass mats. Also, from the Serikie of Makurdi, a cast brass snuff-taker (Munshi). C £4 the lot, the axe being 30/-. I went back to the office in the afternoon + continued sketching, and photographing some of the skulls.

                                                Mr. Williams (engineer of the Benue Bridge, now under construction, came to dine at the Residency, +, brought for me to see, a small pot of primitive make, which had been excavated from under 30 ft of alluvium, in digging bridge foundations.

                                                I had to leave at 10 pm to catch the train to Enugu (10.50 pm) Pendleton motored me to the station, my loads having gone by lorry. Very sorry to leave Makurdi, the Pendletons having been charming host + hostess. At the station I met Capt. Thesiger (whom I had met in the Residency at Zaria + who had been in the Zaria train smash). I had a talk with him in the train before turning in. After a fair night in the train…


Monday, 18th.             Arrived at Enugu at about 7 a.m. (due 6.40 am). I was met by C.K. Meek + Mrs. Meek, who had motored in from Awgu


{NEXT PAGE}         (about 50 miles) for the purpose. The Lieut. Governor’s private secretary, Evan Morgan (a 1928 student of mine), also met me + motored me to Government House, to be the guest of the Lieut. Governor, Capt. Buchanan Smith. The house is brand new + most delightful. I had a fine suite of apartments with a very fine view + very complete with electric geyzer bath-room, electric light + balconies on either side. After breakfast I went with the Meeks to the Bank + drew £40 (13/0 deduction). I went with them around the native market, which was very full. The Ibo women were mostly elaborately painted over their faces, bodies + limbs with beautifully executed + complex designs in indigo. Many men were similarly decorated. They were streaming in from the villages, often many miles away, bringing produce on their heads. We went all over the prison which is a model of neatness + efficiency, we looked round the cells + workshops + saw the condemned cells + scaffold, all very practical. The area all round the outside of the Prison is beautifully laid out in grass slopes with flowering shrubs, crotons, camas etc. We did a little shopping at the stores + returned to Govnt House. The Meeks started back to Awgu, whither I was to follow next day. It rained heavily after midday. After tea, I had a motor run with Morgan around Enugu, to the swimming-bath which


{NEXT PAGE}         is an offshoot of the waterworks + proves a great asset. We drove to the top of Miliken Hill for the splendid view over Enugu + then went to the Club, where the L.-G. joined us. It rained again very heavily. Mr. Nivens + some other Govnt officials dined with the Lieut. Governor.


Tuesday, 19th.             I went with Morgan to the Mines Office, + we were taken by Mr. G.G. Askew in his car to the Enugu Coal Mine + saw the workings outside + underground. Coal trucks were coming out loaded, travelling on an endless cable, + the coal was tipped onto perforated screens + thence into railway trucks. Leaving our coats, ties + topis in the office we went into the horizontal mine shaft + penetrated ½ to ¾ mile into the mountain, following the coal seam as far as a fault in the strata. The seam is 4-5 ft. thick. It was rough walking in the dim light from hand-lamps + involved a lot of stooping in the lower parts. Loaded + empty trucks were continually passing in batches of five. We saw the water-pumping gear + ventilating fans which are very efficient. There are numerous shafts, some extending more than a mile into the mountain side. Back to the house for a much-needed wash + change. After lunch Morgan


{NEXT PAGE}         motored me in the L-G.’s car to Awgu (c. 50 miles), my luggage + boy having gone in a lorry lent to me very kindly by Capt. Buchanan Smith. Beautiful drive through finely cultivated country, with some rather elaborate terraced fields + very methodically laid out plots. There are some remains of virgin forest. From the high ground magnificent views over the plains of Onitsha Province were obtained, over mixed forest + open country. Road very good most of the way. We dropped down a little to Awgu, which was reached in two tours. The Meeks were expecting us. I was given the Resident’s Rest-house, which I had to myself—a typical bush house with mud walls + thatch, spacious + very airy. Plenty of flowers in the garden + lovely view over the plains. In the late afternoon Meek + I went all over the Station Prison with a smart chief warder who spoke studiedly correct English. He took us into every cell, all very full of prisoners. We were shown the scaffold, where 4 natives had recently been hanged; relatives + friends attending the ceremony, as a means of impressing them with the majesty of the Law. We saw the kitchen, feeding place + dispensary all primitive but efficient (I was amused to see manacles + leg-irons hanging amongst the drugs + medicaments in the Dispensary!) I turned into my bush-house


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                                    {photo. Label:} 51. The Resident’s rest-house, AWGU.


{NEXT PAGE}         at about 11 pm. + had a good night. The place is infested with snakes, but I did not see any—or scorpions either.


Wednesday, 20th.        The Meeks + I spent the whole morning in an Ibo village (Umuhu) a few miles off, well hidden away in the forest-belt. A very large crowd of natives was gathered there including innumerable children. We were entertained with much dancing, much of it very vigorous + skilful, with elaborate foot-work, hand + arm posturing + body contortions, men + women performed solo dances + even quite small children exhibited marked skill in dancing. Most of the adults + children had body + facial decoration, in which tattooing, cicatrization + painting were equally conspicuous. The designs being very carefully + often artistically executed. Some of the indigo painted designs covered the whole body, face + limbs in bold artistic patterns well adapted to the contours. Abdominal cicatrization of the women is very neat. The skin colour of the Ibo is very variable, from extremely dark (almost black, to a very light brown. One girl was of a very pale, almost yellow colour (? Partial albino or half-caste). [Albinism is very common in Nigeria + travelling about I saw a great many albino natives, who are particularly unsightly]. The dances were accompanied by music of marimbas with 8 or 9 wooden slats resting on pads on heavy wooden, trough-like


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 32. IBO dance, UMUHU village.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 31. IBO marimba players, UMUHU.

                                    {sketch. Label:} IBO performer with hollow rattles of wicker + calabash.

                                    {inserted photo, looks like another photo of the IBO dance. Top. Label:} 33.

                                                {back of photo:} {unknown. Need to check original}

                                    {inserted photo. Middle. Label:} 35.

                                                {back of photo:} IBO dance, UMUHU village.

                                    {inserted photo. Bottom. Label:} 34.

                                                {back of photo:} IBO dance, UMUHU village.


{NEXT PAGE}         frames (open at the ends + without resonators). Three performers to each marimba—a very skilled performer playing the melody, a boy sounding 3 notes in the tube + a man striking a few in the bass. A man holding a large wicker + gourd rattle in each hand shook them rhythmically, while another beat very clever rhythm on a small cylindrical wooden single-membrane drum, held between his legs + tapped with his hands + wrists. There was also a good deal of wrestling, which is very popular among the Ibos. A man or youth would enter the ‘ring’ + squat down, waiting until a challenger came forward. A challenge was only accepted from someone of his own age grade + physique + not notice at all was taken of a challenger who was unacceptable. The wrestling, on the ‘catch-as-catch-can’ principle, was very vigorous + often quite skilful. People often intervened + separated the combatants, but the rules as to this were not clear. We were taken by a head-man into his compound, where we looked into a shrine or juju house, where stood a crudely carved figure + on the walls + inside the thatch were hung numbers of skulls of pigs, horses, etc. Two large hollow log gongs, with {sketch} + {sketch} shaped slits, stood on the floor of the round hut. Other open-air shrines were dotted about the village. One which was thatched over had an ox skull set up with other objects on a small conical mud mound in which were imbedded lower jaws of sheep or goats.


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 38. Wrestling, UMUHU village.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 36. Queue of children waiting their turn to dance, UMUHU.

                                    {sketch. Label:} Challenger for a wrestling-bout, awaiting an opponent.

                                    {inserted photo. Label:} 37.

                                                {back of photo:} Queue of children awaiting their turn to dance, UMUHU.


{NEXT PAGE}         Another small shrine had a bent brass rod (currency rod) stuck into the ground as an offering. The sleeping huts were very poorly furnished, in fact hardly at all. The great crowd enjoyed the dancing + wrestling as much as we did + thoroughly entered into the spirit of it, as good dancer receiving congratulations + embraces. I took several photos. Before we left the head-man presented us with a live black sheep. A scramble for pennies was very popular, during which the occupants of the village became a huge, seething, scrambling mass of mixed adults + children. No one seemed hurt—which is a marvel.

                                                In the afternoon we motored to Ndeaboh railway station, c. 8 miles. We had a look at the native court house nearby—a large, open-side building of mud + thatch, with benches, dock + witness box built of mud. From a central pillar hung a carved wooden figure with skulls + horns of oxen, sheep + kobs, as a fetish upon which to take oath. It rained heavily in the evening.


Thursday, 21st—         In the morning a head-man of Umuhu village came up to us with two other Ibos, one of whom gave us a series of calls on this end-flute (notched type), illustrating the conveying of messages (a) buy mimicking the


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                                    {Two sketches. One of a man playing an instrument and another of just the instrument. No labels observable, unless they were cut off in the photocopy}


{NEXT PAGE}         sounds of spoken word, (B) by short themes to which a definite meaning is attached, understood generally by Ibos of the neighbourhood. I bought a similar flute from him. Another boy made a fan from a borassus leaf, by intertwining the long leaflets on the stalk, which formed the handle—a process which I had wanted to see.

                                                Swabey(the D.O. of Awgu) came in to lunch (He had given to the P.R. Museum a skin-covered head some while ago). Day mostly fine, but at times a violent wind tore through the house + was rather trying.

                                                In the afternoon the Meeks + I motored to an Ibo village (Ogbori), a few miles away, on the Ndeaboh road. The village is hidden away in the jungle + invisible from the road. We first looked round one of the compounds with its mud-walled circular huts, fitted with carved, pin-hinged doors cut from solid wood. Huts extremely dirty + squalid. We saw some food dishes with two compartments with small {sketch, part of which is labeled with the letter A} meat-chopping block (A). Hanging up were zithers of parallel reed-stalks, with strings formed by splitting away the reed cortex; the strings bound round at the center, to weight them. Yam + other stores were placed in the forks of trees. When we came to the large central space in the village we found a vast


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                                    {sketch of man making a fan? No label.}


{NEXT PAGE}         concourse of natives of both sexes + all ages—probably quite a thousand of them, aggregated there, prepared for dancing + wrestling. Many of the bodies, faces + limbs were decorated with designs in indigo, + tattooing + cicatrization was frequent + of very varied patterning. Some of the faces were smeared over with white or yellow. There was hardly any clothing—men with small breech-clouts or sometimes with sarong-like skirts. Women naked to the waist, the children stark naked. The hair, especially among the children, was done up in elaborate + very varied ‘flower-bed’ designs. Some of the men showed splendid physique, several being tall, lithe + muscular, though there is great variety in height, colour + general physique. Then, women + children danced to accompaniment of instruments exactly similar to those at Umuhu. There was a lot of wrestling, mainly between competitors from different ‘quarters’. Feeling ran high + great excitement was caused + a good deal of animosity. Combatants were frequently separated by their friends. The excitement seemed likely to end in a general mélée + free fight, as most of the men had been indulging in palm-wine + were rather ‘elevated’, so after a time we got up to go away, Mrs. Meek being with us + not wishing to be


{NEXT PAGE}         involved in a village riot. I was sorry not to see it out as it might have been interesting + fairly thrilling. The whole crowded scene was a very interesting sample of naked savagery, the dense, excited crowd being very picturesque + their excitement was infectious. When we got back to the house at Awgu, we could still hear the shouts + yells of the crowd at the distant village, so they carried on for a good while after dark.


Friday, 22nd.                In the morning the Meeks + I motored to the Ibo village of Owelli, 15 miles from Awgu in the Awka division. The village, as usual, was hidden away in the bush. A mud wall about 5 ft high runs round it, the top of the wall neatly thatched with palm leaves (reminding one of the thatched walls of Gloucester. Outside were several small shrines to ancestors, consisting of mud, subconical mounds of small size, in some cases very conventionally anthropomorphic. These were covered with small thatched roofs supported on stakes. There was little on the mounds. Just outside the entrance to a large compound stands a larger + rather more elaborate shrine with curiously-shaped mound of laterite mud, probably anthropomorphic, standing on a mud plinth. Inside the wall were several small shrines of varying design.


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 40. Performer on the musical-bow, , IBO, UMUHU village.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 41. Performer on the sansa, , IBO, UMUHU village.

                                    {sketch. Label:} Emblem in shrine outside the main entrance of OWELLI village.

                                    {inserted photo. Nearly identical to #40. label:} 39.

                                                {back of photo:} Performer on the musical bow, , IBO, UMUHU.


{NEXT PAGE}         One of the larger ones had an old hollow wooden gong, about 2 ft. long upon it, {sketch} for summoning spirits. Some of the shrine mounds has small pottery bowls built into their sides. We went into the head man’s house, which was rather large. The walls were decorated with numbers of skulls of sheep, goats, horses, oxen + small buck; also one Bush-cow’s skull. Stuck into the wall was a {sketch} shaped wooden yam-planting stick; + also a zither of parallel reed stalks with strings formed by splitting off the cortex in narrow strips + bridging these up. Some of the dwelling-huts had mud verandahs for sitting out. I collected a few of the minute iron arrow-head-shaped piece of currency, now practically obsolete, + also a brass bar used as currency. I photographed some groups of children + grown up girls. It rained a good deal. During the walk from the car to the village + back we had to cross a small stream on the backs of the Court messengers who came with us, as interpreters. We got back to Awgu at 3 pm + had a late lunch.

                                                Before starting in the morning to go to Owelli we met a youth from Umuhu village with a musical bow + a samsa. We stopped to hear him play these + I photographed


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                                    {top photo. Label:} IBO children, many elaborately painted with indigo, OWELLI.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} IBO men + women, OWELLI village.

                                    {top sketch. Label:} stringing of IBO bow.

                                    {middle sketch. Label:} ‘arrow-head’ currency.

                                    {bottom sketch. Label is hard to read. Need to check original} Shrine with pottery bowls inset it xxxx.

                                    {inserted photo. Label:} 43.

                                                {back of photo:} IBO children of OWELLI village.


{NEXT PAGE}         him + bought the instruments. It rained all the afternoon.


Saturday, 23rd             It rained practically all day, very heavily at times. I got through some correspondence, etc. Johnson, the new A.D.O., arrived in the afternoon + dined with us.


Sunday, 24th                Meek + I motored to INYI, an Ibo village, 16 miles from Awgu. We got hold of a young chief + told him that we wanted to see their pottery-making. A girl expert was produced + made a pottery jug of small size; starting with a small saucer-like base made from a lump of clay + building the sides up spirally with rolled clay strips, using the hands + a spatulate beater. The surface was smoothed with a short flat piece of wood + the fingers. We also go a weaver to start making a bag of raphia-leaf-strips on a vertical loom. I bought the loom for 3/- + also some bags made upon it. The houses in this village are rectangular, with mud-walled verandah. Carved wooden pin-hinged doors both inside + outside the houses. Very small bows strung over the notched ends are used with palm mid-rib arrows for shooting birds. I photo’d same groups of the natives + 3 girls with elaborate decorations (2 painted with patterns in indigo


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                                    {photo. Label:} 45. IBO girl making a pottery jug, INYI village

                                    {sketches 1-6 labeled 1 through 6 of various jugs}

                                    {sketch to the right of a girl making a pot. No label}

                                    {inserted photo. Label:} 47.

                                                {back of photo:} Group of IBOs, INYI village


{NEXT PAGE}         all over, the patterns being beautifully executed, and one cicatrized round the navel with symmetrical + skifully done keloids). A large + elaborately rib-decorated pot (coloured) is sold for 6d., + the woven bags for 6d-9d each.

                                                On the return journey to Awgu, we stopped to look at the roadside market at Achi. It was crammed with native people selling yams, land-crabs (10 on a stick for one penny), smoked rats on skewers, Achatina snails, etc. A very picturesque sight. When we got back to the house, we found Swabey + Johnson waiting for us. The Meeks + I had a walk round the Station gardens, where vegetables (carrots, tomatoes, asparagus etc) are grown successfully.


Monday, 25th—          It had been arranged for me to start with the Meeks for Onitsha at 8.45 a.m; but the N.A. lorry did not turn up for my loads till much later, + we did not get loaded up till nearly 10 a.m. We then started in the Meek’s car, following the Enugu road as far as the branch road to Inyi, + then on through Awka to Onitsha (c. 60 miles). Scenery very beautiful, cultivated areas alternating with oil palms + forest. A great many Ibos and many Hausas + Filanis were on the road. Awka is quite a large village, with low


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 48. Group of IBO men + boys, INYI village.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} Woman with elaborate abdominal cicatrization + two girls very elaborately painted with indigo. (the painting hardly shows in the photograph).

                                    {top sketch. Label:} Hair-dressing designs of Ibo children.

                                    {bottom sketch. Label:} opu, IBO whistle, INYI village


{NEXT PAGE}         compound walls of much thatched with palm-leaves, + nicely carved wooden ‘pin-hinged’ doors. Houses mostly rectangular. Men of position in the village were carrying long brass + iron staves, as badges. Unmarried girls wear heavy leglets of stout, spirally-wound brass rod from ankle to knee, the weight of which materially affects their gait. For a while before marriage, this spiral is extended until it reaches high up the thigh, when walking becomes very laborious. Hair-dressing + indigo body painting of these girls are very elaborate but they wear no clothing of any kind.

                                                We arrived at Onitsha after 2 p.m. + went to the Residency where we learnt that, owing to Meek’s telegram having been long delayed in transit, we were expected next Monday! However, the Resident, Mr. Wanton arranged to put the Meeks up; and we then went on to find A.C. Swayne, the D.O. (one of my former Diploma students), at the Administration Office. He, too, was not expecting us so soon, but he took me off to his house to stay with him. His house overlooks the Niger a fine stretch, about 1 mile wide at this point. After lunch with Swayne, we all went down to the Onitsha native market + looked around it. I bought some Munshi brass currency, some old quartz beads + a small Ibo basket. The market is large, but less interesting than the northern


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                                    {top sketch. Two drawings of legs with leg bands. No label.}

                                    {bottom sketch. Label:} Heavy ivory anklet worn by a rich man’s wife, ONITSHA.


{NEXT PAGE}         markets in Zaria, Katsina + Kano, being more overloaded with cheap + inferior European goods. Large quantities of yam were being marketed, the harvest having well commenced. Baskets full of large, smoked caterpillars were being sold for food, Achatina snails etc. Many large dug-out canoes some of which had been widened by warping, were drawn up on the bank of the Niger near the market. The Meeks went off to the Residency + Swayne and I went in his car to an Ibo village (Nkwélé), several miles away along a N.A. road, which was largely grass-covered. The village is a scattered one, divided into compounds, each of which is surrounded by a mud wall, with carved ‘pin-hinged’ wooden door leading into the enclosure. Mud walled houses with thatched roofs reaching very low down. In the main room is a kind of dais of mud with decoratively-moulded front, + this serves for sitting upon + also as a bed. The walls were decorated with some palm leaves ingeniously + artistically cut in elaborate openwork designs, + with rows of skulls of animals killed. A shrine building contained many animals’ skulls, and some very large bell-shaped ivory gongs—one with a cluster of four similar but very small gongs welded to the top; another, about 3 ft. 6 in. high was fitted with two spikes


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                                    {sketch. Bell? No label.}


{NEXT PAGE}         at the bottom, for sticking into the ground. Inside the entrance gate to the compound stood a large dug-out wooden gong with human head carved in complete relief at one end. {large sketch} In one of the houses we watched a girl being painted with indigo by a woman, who used a tiny stick as paint ‘brush’. The designs were very elaborate + covered the whole body + face, + were being very skillfully applied freehand, rapidly + with wonderful firmness of touch. Whenever we entered a compound, the head man offered us Kola nuts, of which we each had to take one, break it open + after taking a piece to chew hand back the remainder. Rather nasty + bitter, but might be worse. The open spaces in the village had sitting out places formed of bamboo poles or logs arranged tier above tier + supported upon stakes driven into the ground. Several communal shrines were to be seen both outside + inside the compounds. Some of the richer men wore greave-like brass anklets, + women wore brass chains wound round the ankles + carrying pendants. I saw many large pots well decorated all over with impressed designs.


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                                    {photo. Label:} IBO women, NKWÉLÉ village.

                                    {sketch. Right. Label:} Iron gong with spikes.

                                    {bottom sketch. Label:} Sitting-out stand, NKWÉLÉ village.


{NEXT PAGE}        

Tuesday, 26th.             Swayne + I motored again to Nkwélé, where he had business to transact with the chiefs, in regard to land etc. We found a great gathering of Ibos awaiting us, + the open space arranged for a big palaver. There were very many head-men with their symbolic metal staves. Some of these staves were of iron with or without spear head at the end, for sticking into the ground. Some were forked at the upper end, {sketch}. Some were of wood, heavily overlaid with brass, copper and iron. Several of the older men had one eye painted round with white (rarely both eyes), symbolizing some meritorious action. They looked extremely comical + reminded one of Chirgwin, the ‘White-eyed Kaffir, of the music halls, years ago.

                                                Some members of the Maw Society paraded in disguise, representing, or rather impersonating, ancestors; wearing cloth masks over their faces + carved + painted wooden head-gear representing birds. The clothing completely covered the performers, and their voices were disguised with small instruments (igwé) carried in the mouth + consisting of short-reed tubes, open at the mouth end, the other end being covered with a white membrane (the egg capsule of a spider), which vibrated + imparted a ‘reedy’ intonation. These figures paraded accompanied by singing satellites. The women kept well                


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                                    {photo. Label:} Assembly of head-men at NKWELE village.

                                    {top left sketch. Label:} Chief of NKWELE village, wearing French helmet of the “Sappears Pompiers du tonnerre.”

                                    {2nd sketch from the top. Label:} IBO man’s anklet of brass-rod.

                                    {middle sketch. Label:} Reed voice disguiser—actual size {arrow} spider’s membrane

                                    {bottom 2 sketches. Label:} Maw masqueraders, NKWELE.


{NEXT PAGE}         away from the masquerades, + are not initiated into the secrets of the Society.

                                                While Swayne + Urquhart (Agriculture), who had joined us, were away discussing the acquisition of the land for a Government Experimental farm, I looked around the village. An English-speaking native teacher came round with me part of the time. I visited several of the huts in the compounds +, incidentally, was given some of the best oranges I have ever eaten, from a large tree in the village. One hunter’s hut had many trophies hanging up, e.g. skulls of wild pigs, small buck, porcupines, etc. Some of the houses had their walls painted with crude designs of snakes + conventional patterns. Ikenga and other fetishes are seen in most of the houses.

                                                After Swayne + Urquhart returned to the village, I went with the latter in his car to some Ibo villages about 25 miles from Onitsha, well away from the main road along a N.A. bye-road. These villages are famed for their dancing + the unmarried girls do not work in the fields. These girls are completely naked, but wear the heavy spiral brass leg ornaments + sometimes spiral brass armlets. Their hair is most elaborately done up in great variety of designs + with very great skill; and their faces + bodies + limbs are decorated with wonderfully executed patterns in indigo.


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                                    {top left and right photos. Label:} 55. 56. Maw masqueraders, NKWELE village.

                                    {middle left and right photos. Label:} 57. 58. Maw masqueraders NKWÉLÉ village.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} 53. Groups of IBOS, NKWELE village.


{NEXT PAGE}         Some of the girls wore in their hair a number of silver sixpences. They danced several of their dances, half a dozen or so going round in a circle, stamping rhythmically and posturing with body and arms, keeping excellent time to an accompaniment of hand-clapping + singing. The dancing was grotesque in the contortions, but very vigorous and by no means unpleasing. I photographed some of the girls in groups, in the village of Ntejé in the Aguleri district. On the way back we stopped at another village close by + watched some dancing by men + youths, to accompaniment of a hollow wooden gong {sketch}, a small two-bar xylophone with resonator of pottery {sketch}, two hollow rattles of wicker-work and calabash, a small single-membrane drum, and two large pottery jars, suspended by slings from the performers’ shoulders + whose open mouths were struck with folded pieces of palm leaf, producing dull, muffled notes. I photographed this band of musicians.

                                                Later, we passed by a large market in full swing by the roadside. Cowries were still functioning as small change currency. The smell of smoked fish and fermenting cassava (manioc) was hard to endure.


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                                    {top 2 photos. Label:} 65. 66. IBO girls, before marriage, wearing very heavy spiral brass leg ornaments, NTEJÉ village.

                                    {bottom photo. Label:} IBO musicians, NTEJÉ village. Drum, hollow long gong, 2-barred xylophone + two pottery jars.

                                    {sketch. Label:} IBO playing on pottery jar, striking the aperture with a palm leaf fan.


{NEXT PAGE}         It was nearly 4 pm. when we got back to Swayne’s house for lunch, and found the Meeks waiting to say goodbye, as they had to motor back to Awgu.

                                                Later in the afternoon, Swayne + I went motoring along the river bank (the ‘Marina’) + examined the various types of river craft, mostly dug-outs, some of very large size. Then we went to see if any iron-smiths were working but work had stopped for the day. The smiths use the usual paired stick-+-membrane bellows. Next we paid a visit to the Odi (spiritual chief of Onitsha), a quaint, grimy old man, who ‘dashed’ me a couple of live fowls, which I really did not want. After this we called upon the Resident, Major Wauton {Wanton?} and Mrs. Wauton, and had a good chat with them. Swayne + I dined together at his house.


Wednesday, 27th.        I went with Swayne for a trip in the Government launch up the Anambra Creek, which joins the Niger (left bank) immediately above Onitsha, to visit some Ibo villages (Umuez e anam and Anguleri Otuacha) some 20 miles up the Creek. The ‘Creek’, by the way is about ½ mile wide in many places. We started rather late, about 11.30 a.m, owing to delays. The left bank of the Creek is fairly high


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                                    {top photo. Label:} 57. Girl dancers, NTEJÉ, AGULERI district.

                                    {bottom photo. label:} 59. Girls dancing, NTEJÉ village.


{NEXT PAGE}         and wooded, the right bank low + covered with tall grass and trees whose roots were largely well under water. Beyond a few Kingfishers (Ceryle rudis), River Cormorants (Ph. africanus) + sandpipers, I saw few birds. Along the banks were some huge circular fishing-nets, hinged below for lowering + raising, with a hammock-like pocket at the bottom into which the fish slide when the net is raised. Deluges of rain fell during the trip up-stream, but the weather cleared just before we landed at Umuez e Anam, where we tied up to a tree + went ashore in the dinghy. A very muddy, water-logged path led through the bush to the village, which is regularly flooded every year when the river is at its highest. The huts are rectangular with walls of mud reinforced with wattle-work (sometimes mud between two wattle layers). The thatching is of palm-leaves. Some of the huts have simple moulded designs on the walls, + some have large + elaborate carved + painted wooden panels, in great variety of design, a few carved in open-work. These form a screen in front of the huts. The floors are raised high above the ground level, being raised upon a mud (reinforced) plinth about 3 ft or so high, to prevent flooding (though even this is not effectual). Inside the living room is a long raised mud bench, for sitting + sleeping upon, some of these having


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                                    {sketch. unknown subject matter. no label.}


{NEXT PAGE}         moulded designs upon the front. Several shrines with thatched roof on stakes occur in the village, with large mud cones, roughly anthropomorphic on raised plinths of mud, {two large sketches to right of next few lines of text} + many have offerings on the plinths or hung from the stakes. One large shrine, with room-like recess, containing relics of dead chiefs, contained a great variety of objects, including a long wrought-iron, bell-shaped gong, with spikes below for sticking into the ground. Also a clever imitation of a solar topi in wood! In front of this shrine was an openwork fence of poles to which were attached numbers of white cotton streamers, each indicating a chicken sacrificed. Several of the iron staves, symbolic of rank, with spear-head or Y-shaped ends, were stuck in the ground in front of the shrine. Several marriageable girls were about, wearing the heavy spiral brass leg ornaments extending from ankle to high up on the thigh, in which they hobbled laboriously about. They were undergoing the pre-marriage fattening process + seemed rather listless. They were all stark naked, though their skins were very elaborately painted with designs in indigo. There were quantities of the minute ‘pagan’ cattle (about the size of Kerry cattle)


{NEXT PAGE}         in the village. We watched a woman making + decorating a pot, very cleverly. A rough saucer-like base was first made in the hands from a lump of clay + upon this the shape was built up spirally with short ‘sausages’ of clay. The shaping was done with the hands + without a beater. The surface was scraped smooth and decorated with ribs (using for this a gouge-ended stick, with which nicks on the ribs were also made), a band of ornamentation was made with a comb; and a short twisted piece of string was then rolled over the whole undecorated surface, leaving its imprint.

                                                Around a large open space were some sitting out places, made of horizontal logs raised tier above tier upon stout forked supports. In one hut a blacksmith was making double-pointed fish-spear heads and double bell shaped gongs {small sketch}. A leather-worker was making ornamental belts for youths + girls (I bought one for 3/-), involving a good deal of skilled work in coloured leather strips.

                                                We returned to the launch + had lunch on board + crossed over to the big village of Aguleri Otuacha, whose chief, Idigo, had joined us. He spoke English fairly well. Market was in full swing + the village was thronged with natives. Several blacksmiths were at work, using {sketch} paired stick + membrane bellows with wooden


{NEXT PAGE}         air-chambers, iron bar-hammers (squared + rounded), small mushroom-shaped anvils stuck with logs {sketch}, and very large clay tuyères. I bought an iron staff for a man of position (2/6) and another fitted with small iron bells for a ‘medicine man’ (3/-). A woman was making some fine large pots + decorating them with ribbed designs suggesting coarse textile, {sketch} using the gouge-ended stick for the purpose. A number of musicians were singing + playing upon a variety of instruments {sketch} including hollow log gongs {sketch}, side-blast trumpets of elephants’ tusks for various sizes, {3 sketches to right of next few lines of text} and also upon a large pottery jar, specially made with a circular hole in the side, playing with {sketch to the right of next few lines of text} both hands (one striking the neck-opening and the other the side-hole, alternately), the pot being slung from the performer’s shoulder.

                                                We visited chief Idigo’s house, a modernized brick building with two stories, the top room of which is panelled all round with fine, large carved wooden panels, carved in various designs (e.g. crocodiles + conventional patterns, badly executed)


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                                    {sketch of a person’s face and shoulders. no label.}


{NEXT PAGE}         We started down-river at about 5.30 pm + reached Onitsha landing at about 7. We dined at the Residency with Capt. and Mrs. Wauton. Mr. + Mrs. Nivens (friends + neighbours of C.W. Hobley at Sidcup) were staying there. I had previously met Nivens at the Lieut. Governor’s house in Enugu. A very jolly + interesting day.


Thursday, 28th—        I was lent the Government launch and went again up the Anambra Creek to Aguleri Otuacha, this time by myself. I started at 9.50 am. Fine, warm day all through, very hot, in fact. Arrived at Aguleri at 11.39 a.m.. Chief Idigo came down to meet me + I spent the day in his company. We went round the market, where I bought several of the native iron objects. I watched a woman potter impressing reticulated patterns over some recently-made pots, using for the purpose a short piece of twisted tie-tie. We went to Idigo’s house to see if his car was working, but found that it would take some time to get her to go, as one of the coupling rods had been broken. So we crossed the river in the launch to Umuez e Anam (where we were yesterday) for another look around. Idigo told me that the conical anthropomorphic clay figures in shrines are fetishes (for child-bearing); there are several of these in the village. I examined several of the


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                                    {two sketches of boats. no label.}


{NEXT PAGE}         carved wooden house-fronts, some of them quite elaborate, some of the groups of panels were in front of the verandahs on the ‘street’, others in front of living huts at the back of the compound. I photographed a group of musicians, who were playing on a hollow log gong, a pair of wicker + gourd rattles + a single-membrane drum, in one of the compounds. A good many prospective brides, wearing the high spiral brass leg-ornaments, were about the village, mostly sitting or lying down, since walking is a laborious process with their heavily weighted legs. In the huts built of ‘reinforced’ clay, the ceilings are strongly constructed, as the inmates sleep upon them when the lower parts of the houses are flooded, in spite of the high plinth on the ground floor. Most of the houses are built with and {sic?} outer verandah with mud settee, behind which is a courtyard with sleeping quarters at the back. Some of the verandahs have their roofs supported by deeply-fluted wooden columns (? Are such columns the prototypes of the fluted stone columns of the Greeks + others). Every house had its Ikenga figure, carved with horns on the head, to which offerings are made to bring success; in some houses there were several Ikengas. After spending some time in the houses, chewing Kola nuts with the occupants + conversing + joking with them, we returned to the launch + crossed back to Aguleri Otuacha.


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                                    {top photo. label:} 68. Front of IBO hut decorated with carved and painted wooden panels, UMUEZ-E-ANAM, ANAMBRA CREEK.

                                    {bottom photo. label:} 69. IBO musicians, UMUEZ-E-ANAM.


{NEXT PAGE}         I had a hurried late lunch while Idigo went off to fetch his small car. When he returned we went in the car, which could just crawl up hill, in spite of the missing connecting rod, onto the high ground at the back, to visit some villages some miles away + forming part of the Aguleri group of villages, some of which I had visited with Urquhart on the 26th. These villages are pure bush villages, hardly changed at all from their former state + but little affected by civilized contacts. The houses, as usual, built of mud, with the thatched roofs coming very low down, necessitating much stooping to effect an entry. Several had very good large carved panels in front, + sitting benches of mud with rams’ heads + other designs moulded upon them, along the front + ends. There was a very large shrine in one village, built with three walls + an open front, thatched over. The walls of this have several circular pottery bowls imbedded in them. Within the shrine stood a huge conical mound with moulded head and arms, painted; various offerings were placed before + around this fertility fetish. A number of girls, painted all over with designs in indigo + wearing the spiral brass leglets from ankle to knee, but otherwise entirely nude, danced to singing accompaniment. One saw also tiny children, girls of not more than 2 years of age,


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                                    {top photo. label:} 63. IBO girl dancers, AGULERI district

                                    {bottom photo. label:} 64. IBO girls, showing elaborate hairdressing, AGULERI.

                                    {inserted photo. label:} 60.

                                                {back of photo:} IBO girls dancing. AGULERI district.


{NEXT PAGE}         going through the dance movements + contortions by themselves + even with some skill. I was shown with much secrecy a Maw costume, the girls being chased away during the unwrapping of the dress. I was able, also with great secrecy, to obtain one of the voice-disguisers with spiders membrane buzzing mechanism. Only a few men were allowed to witness the transaction. A long procession of small girls passed us on the road, all of them quite nude but smeared with cam-wood red dye from head to foot. They were taking part in a ritual to secure fertility after marriage. Some of them seemed to be commencing their fecundity ceremonies at an extremely early age!

                                                On the return journey to the river, we ran right into another + very wild + excited procession headed by a young man who was heavily greased and feathered all over. He was on his way to wrestle against another villager, + was accompanied by a huge crowd, including old men who were singing + beating drums + a hollow wooden going of {sketch} this shape. We had difficulty in forcing a way through the crowd which was in a wild state of excitement. We went straight down to the launch, + I started down the river at 5.40 pm, and reached Onitsha at 7.15 pm. in the dark. Had difficulty in getting the launch to the quay


{NEXT PAGE}        

Friday, 29th.                Up at 6 am to pack, hoping to start off early. I got all ready by 9, but had to wait for Swayne, who had gone to the Office, + I did not get the lorry until 10.30. The Resident had kindly let me have a N.A. lorry to take me to Benin. I went down with Swayne to the ferry—a very quaint structure. There was a long delay again before the lorry was got on board the ferry. It took nearly an hour to cross the Niger to Asaba, which was reached at 12.30 pm. From Asaba to Benin (87 miles) it rained most of the way; the road was pretty bad + very jolty. When the Residency at Benin was reached the rain was torrential. It was 3.30 pm, + the Resident, H. de B. Bewley, had expected me much earlier. I had a late lunch with him. I did not get out again as it rained persistently + heavily. T.D. Fairbairn (late of Trin. Coll. Oxon, + a student under Sehlick + Troup) came in after sundown, + we discussed ornithology. I dined along with the Bewleys.


Saturday, 30th.             Very heavy rain most of the morning. I had a short stroll around the 12-acre Residency Compound, looking at the birds etc. At midday I went with Bewley to visit the Obba (or Chief) of Benin, a grey-headed man of 50 or so, who came out from his ‘palace’ to salute us, preceded by a boy carrying his sword of state + accompanied


{NEXT PAGE}         by a number of other boys (his “souls”), one of whom supported his left arm as he walked along. The Obba wore necklets + wristlets of large coral beads. He took us to see the ‘altar’ in the ‘palace’ which formerly was decked with bronze heads supporting huge carved elephants’ tusks + other ritualistic objects. Now only a couple of iron bell-staves and several drums remain upon it. He also showed up part of the interior of the palace, with its well carved wooden beams + also two old carved panels, inherited from the “good old days”. It is practically certain that he had recently performed a human sacrifice; the evidence is very substantial, but absolute legal proof is lacking. In the Obba’s compound we saw the workshops where brass-casting by the circ perdue process is still being done; the crucibles + other appliances were there, but no work was being done at the time.

                                                The Bewleys + I dined with Major Sumner, the D.O. Whitehouse + another former student of mine were also present.


Sunday, 31st.               Up at 6 am + finished packing + had a stroll before breakfast. Weeks’ Motor-bus fetched my luggage + boy at about 9 am. The Bewleys started off in their car + I followed in a car lent to me by the Government. We got started at 9.40, going nearly


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                                    {sketch of the Oba of Benin accompanied by boy. label:} Eweka, the Obba of BENIN

                                    {Newspaper clipping from The Times 13.2.1933 about the Oba of Benin. Text not reproduced here. See original or photocopy.}


{NEXT PAGE}         due north. Forest road nearly all the way, becoming more open + cultivated after passing Ifon. I saw a Brush-tailed Porcupine (Atherura africana) on the road; it bolted into the scrub. I arrived at ỌWỌ (c. 80 miles) at about 1 pm. + went to the D.O.’s house, where Major + Mrs. E.K. Milbourne were expecting me. The Bewleys had arrived just before me, Mr. + Mrs. Fairbairn (from Benin_ who had stayed the night at Ifon, were also with the Milbournes. The Bewleys went on to Akure, the Fairbairns staying for lunch + tea. In the late afternoon the Milbournes + I went into ỌWỌ village to visit the Ọwa (chief), who came out to greet us in full ceremonial dress, smothered in large cylindrical + other coral, carnelian and bauxite beads. He wore a two-horned head-dress entirely covered with coral beads, a network of coral beads over his shoulders, + his robes were studded with large cylindrical beads of carnelian + bauxite. The weight of this outfit is very great + cannot be supported for long at a time. His two principal officials who accompanied him were also elaborately rigged out with heavy ornaments of coral + bauxite beads. One of them wore a high, massive ‘choker’ of cylindrical beads, covering the lower part of his face nearly to the eyes, and a very broad sash of similar large beads over the shoulder + diagonally across his body. He wore a thickly padded out


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                                    {sketch of one of Ọwa’s officials. touches of red. no label.}


{NEXT PAGE}         crinoline-like skirt + carried a ceremonial sword of the peculiar traditional shape, with large ring handle. The second official worn {sic?} a conical cap covered with beats, and numerous carved ivory plaques stitched to his jacket + sleeves; coral neck + arm ornaments. After a ceremonial interview in state in a small courtyard of the Ọwa’s compound, we returned to the D.O.’s house, and then went for ‘sundowners’ to the A.D.O., H.F. Marshall (a 1927 student of mine), who came to dine with the Milbournes.


Monday, Sept. 1st—   Most of my luggage was taken on to Akure by Marshall, the A.D.O., in a N.A. lorry. I motored with Milbourne to Ikare (30 miles) along a N.A. bye-road. Very beautiful scenery along the road, amongst granite hills + through semi-forest, borassus-+ oil-palms. We saw a large flock (15-20) of black + white hornbills flying overhead, and a number of ground squirrels. The collection of villages, or ‘quarters’, forming Ikare is most beautifully situated in a hollow surrounded by granite hills. It is the best laid out + cleanest village I have seen in the Southern Provinces. There are large, grass-covered open spaces (like


{NEXT PAGE}         ‘village greens’. The huts are mud-walled + thatched, though many are now pan-roofed. The chief was at another village + we did not find him in his compound. So we climbed up a steep hill to the Rest-house, which occupies a commanding position overlooking the Ikare villages + has a fine view all round. We could see in the distance the chief returning on foot with a small crowd of retainers + preceded by two drummers + a man blowing mournfully a long, straight trumpet, shaped like a post-horn. The chiefs’ sword-bearer also marched in front. When he reached the compound we went down to see the chief—a young, very stoutly built man of considerably intelligence, dressed Hausa-wise. He showed us his domed council chamber of laterite mud, with 8 vaulting beams of mud, + inset all over with porcelain bowls mostly set with their concavities outward, giving quite a good effect. We watched one of his girls weaving at a vertical loom. The chief was very polite + was pleased when I complimented him on his village. He ‘dashed’ us two bottled of palm-wine + three pods of Kola nuts (large crinkled fleshy green pods, each containing about 6 Kola nuts which were covered with a thin white skin, the flesh of the nuts being magenta-pink all through, not white like


{NEXT PAGE}         another kind of Kola nut. We got back to ỌWỌ at 1 pm. I was kept in by heavy rain the rest of the day.


Tuesday, 2nd—           While waiting for a lorry to take me to Akure (30 miles) I looked around the compound with Mrs. Milbourne. It was noon when I started in the lorry with a native driver, + with a lot of native passengers + my boy at the back. We stopped several times to pick up passengers, + once when I met Bewley returning to Benin from Oshogbo, after seeing his wife off to Lagos. I arrived at the Residency at Akure at about 1.30 pm. Grace + Harold had not received my letter, posted at Awgu on Aug. 16 [It arrived in the afternoon, having taken 17 days in coming, via Ilorin!] + they had only learnt from Bewley + from my heavy luggage turning up yesterday, that I had reached the Southern Provinces. I spent the rest of the day strolling about + looking at birds, and watching a Long-crested Hawk-Eagle, bulbuls, Pin-tailed Whydah-birds, Orange-cheeked Wax-bills, Sun-birds, black-+-white Hornbills + a Vulturine Fish Eagle. It rained a good deal. D.F. Stanfield, the A.D.O (one of my former students, Thorburn (Education), Dunbar and Bath (Engineers) came to the Residency for ‘sundowners’.


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                                    {sketch. label:} Crested Hawk-Eagle. Lophoaetus occipitalis.



Wednesday, 3rd—       Fine for the most part. I wrote to Pembleton concerning the Munshi specimens at Makurdi. While watching the Long-crested Hawk-eagle, which has been hanging about the Residency for some days, a snake, about 5 or 6 ft long, fell from a high tree under which I was standing, landing at my feet + only missing my bald head by inches. It looked up at me rather scared + then made off in the grass. We went round to Thorburn’s house at sun-down.


Thursday, 4th—          Fine day. Nothing special doing. I saw the Vulturine Sea Eagle + Crested Hawk-eagle several times, but no new birds. Tree Hyraxes occur round the Station, but I did not catch sight of any. After tennis the full strength of the Station came to the Residency for drinks.


Friday, 5th—               I motored with Stanfield to Addo Ekiti (47 miles), via Ilara + Igbăra Oke, where we branched off from the Oshogbo road, turning to the right. Part of the road between Igbara Oke + Addo Ekiti is extremely beautiful, through several miles of virgin forest. The rest of the road is through more open country, with low bush, cultivation patches, elephant-grass + very fine + strikingly smooth + bare-surfaced granite hills. We met Harris, the D.O. of Ikiti,


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                                    {sketch. label:} The ‘Post-master General’, AKURE. A star turn in everted lips.


{NEXT PAGE}         on his way to Akure + had a talk with him. We passed a Yoruba house by the roadside which had verandah-posts elaborately carved with human figures. Some of the bush-paths had “no admittance” signs stretched across them in the form of palm-leaves hanging from strings. We had picnic lunch on the road before reaching Addo Ekiti, which we reached at about 2 pm. + found R.H. Gretton, the A.D.O (one of my 1929 students), who joined us at his bungalow + took us around the Station, which is an attractive one amidst granite hills + with a large space cleared of bush, + avenue of Cassia trees. We went past the prison + past a large Sacred Grove, which still functions as such, to the native hospital, which I went over. It is very small + full-up at the time. After tea with Gretton we started back to Akure. We again met Harris, who had broken down just outside Addo Ekiti. We had a long talk with him, while his car was being persuaded to go, and we did not get fairly started on the return journey till 6 pm. We had heavy rain on the way + a somewhat wild drive over a very bumpy road, reaching Akure at 7.15, in the dark. Mr. + Mrs. Mackenzie had arrived from Benin to stay the night before going on to Ife, to take up the D.O.-ship. They + Stanfield dined at the Residency


{NEXT PAGE}        

Saturday, 6th.               The McKenzies {sic?} started off to Ife after breakfast. I watched an interminable procession of Driver-ants which for many hours was passing the Residency, in close formation about six abreast along a well-defined though very wavy route, with fight-ants standing on the flanks guarding both sides of the procession. It watched them for a long while + got bitten by several which crawled up my legs inside my trousers. I saw some Green Pigeons (Vinago sp.) in one of the Residency trees. While passing by the tennis court I saw a six-foot snake struggling to swallow an enormous toad (about 3 times the size of an English toad). The snake was turning + twisting about in its efforts, showing its gleaming-white underscales, which caught my attention. It had hold of the toad’s leg + the toad seemed resigned to its fate + did not struggle at all. I was very closet + chucked a small stone at the snake which promptly let go of the toad + slithered away. It watched it for a while + then looked for the toad, which had hopped away + was travelling complacently down the road-way, apparently none the worse. The snake (apparently a Colubrine) was light brown above with wide transverse dark bars + white below.

                                                Egungun (Yoruba Secret Society) masked figures were going about Akure all day, representing spirits


{NEXT PAGE}         + emitting yodeling cries. They were covered from head to foot in long palm-leaf (?) streamers, their faces were covered with masks or close net-work + they + their attendants carried long peeled wands, with which to frighten the women, who are believed to become childless if touched with the wands. The full belief in Egungun is tending to pass away + the ritual is gradually becoming regarded as a joke.

                                                After dinner Grace, Harold + I motored 18 miles out along the Ondo road to a bridge over the Owenni R.. Beautiful night with nearly full moon. We saw quantities of fire-flies + nightjars + a white owl, but no “beef”.


Sunday, 7th—              Grace, Harold + I motored to ỌWỌ (30 miles) in the morning, arriving at the Milbourne’s house at noon, to stay the night + witness a part of the Igogo festival ceremony. At about 5 pm. the Milbournes, Avelings, Marshall + I all went down to the Ọwa’s compound, where a dense crowd was assembled. The compound was densely packed with natives; many of the men were beating bell-shaped iron gongs. We were given chairs at one end of the compound; at the back of us was a raised verandah with very elaborately thatched roof, the eaves of which descended very low + almost hid the Ọwa + other occupants, including the numerous wives of the Ọwa


{NEXT PAGE}         who were seated all together, stark naked.* There was a lot of dancing of a rather ridiculous kind, just posturing with mincing steps. The Ọwa was wearing broad heavy baldricks of cylindrical bauxite beads + coral beads round his neck + wrists, ankles + waist; + one red parrots feather + two white feathers in his hair. He wore a very voluminous, padded out + crinoline-like skirt, + when he danced he beat time on a long iron digging-spud with a small iron rod. His principal officials were very similarly dressed + decorated + used the same agricultural implements as gongs. (The use of this for rhythmic purposes is possibly connected with the Igogo ceremonies being part of a harvest ritual). The crowd of gong beaters supplied the bulk of the rhythmic music.

                                                when the Ọwa was not dancing or peacocking about he sat with us, a small boy squatting in front of him + holding the state sword, which had a peculiarly curved blade + an ivory hilt carved with human heads. When the Ọwa went out to dance there were loud cheers from his nude spouses at the back of the verandah. As the padded costumes were exceedingly hot + heavy the heated brows of the dancers were from time to time mopped by attendants with huge pillow-like swabs. A couple of rather antique ladies of the Court performed rather absurd


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                                    {text at top of page:} *When the Ọwa’s wives fetch water from the stream they go entirely naked, to prevent their concealing poison + doctoring the water for the Ọwa’s household!

                                    {left sketch. touches of red. label:} The Ọwa dancing

                                    {right sketch. label:} {female sign} hair-dressing, ỌWỌ.


{NEXT PAGE}         little dances every now + then. After watching the scene for a good while, we got up to go, the Ọwa accompanying us to the cars. After dinner at the Milburne’s {sic?}, some settled down to bridge, while I had talks with our delightful host + hostess. It was past midnight when I went off with Marshall, to sleep on a camp-bed at his bungalow.


Monday, 8th—            After 8 oclock breakfast I had a prowl round the Station + the Golf links. I collected some sensitive-plants of a kind new to me. Grace, Harold + I started back to Akure at about 10.30 a.m., + reached the Residency in about an hour. After lunch I had a stroll through the town, as far as the Native Court + Déji’s house + through the market. The Déji, who was presiding over the Native Court, saw me pass by, + sent a messenger to convey his salaams. In the market ‘stink-fish’, smoked coiled like whiting + spitted ten on a skewer, and also huge Achatina snails, 8 or 9 inches long, were dominant sale articles.

Many Egungun masked figures were going around the town, making their weird cries, some dressed from head to foot in palm-leaf streamers, with masks over their faces; others completely enveloped (head + all, in dried grass—looking like animated hay-cocks. Occasionally one would rush at me


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                                    {pasted in plant specimen. label:} Sensitive plant, ỌWỌ (also seen at IBADAN)

                                    {bottom left sketch. label:} A. with net-work mask + palm leaf covering.

                                    {middle sketch. label:} B. Covered head to foot in grass

                                    {right sketch. label:} C. With carved wooden mask + palm-leaf covering.

                                    {label for A, B & C:} Egungun masked figures


{NEXT PAGE}         with an inarticulate noise. All carried the long peeled wands + each was accompanied by unmasked satellites. Instruments for disguising the voices were not being used by these Yoruba though much used by the Ibos and Munshis + some other tribes.

                                                Afterwards I went to see how the new hospital building was progressing + had a talk with its constructor, Mr. Bath.

                                                After dinner the Station indulged in a mad fit. Thorburn had complained of visits paid at night to his bungalow by the Residency cat, “Arune”. So Harold, Grace + I fetched Stanfield + Dunbar + stole up to Thorburn’s bungalow + treated him to a really lurid cat’s serenade, which ‘drew’ Thorburn + a bucket of water. Bath was also treated to a Tom cats’ concert with considerable success. The Resident’s caterwauling was work-perfect.


Tuesday, 9th—            Busy packing + writing in the morning. After lunch I had another walk as far as the market + Native Court. Plenty of Egungun masqueraders were about, the festival being in full swing. Mr. Hoey (P.W.D. of United Provinces, India) arrived on an advisory mission, with Mr. Brown, + they joined in the afternoon’s tennis, the whole crowd coming on to the Residency for drinks + yarns.

                                                Just as the Avelings + I were about to turn in for the


{NEXT PAGE}         night, a dramatic motor-smash was staged by Stanfield, Dunbar + Bath, just in front of the Residency, a finely-conceived + well executed hoax, but a bit too stagey + kerosene-tinny to take us in. We took them in, for drinks + as this was my ‘send-off’ we did not get to bed till well after midnight.


Wednesday, 10th.        I watched a pair of very dark finches (not identified) build a nest in an orange tree in the Residency garden, + also a pair of small, red-headed woodpeckers (or, possibly, barbets) busy at a nesting hole in a dead tree below the garden. At 2.30 pm I started for Oshogbo (73 miles) in a car which was lent to me, my boy + loads going in a N.A. lorry. Very sorry to say goodbye to Grace + Harold, after a very jolly time in Akure. The road passed through, Ilara, Igbăra Oke, Erin Oke, Erin Odo, Erin Mo and Ilesha. Torrents of rain fell + as the car’s hood leaked very badly, everything got drenched.

                                                Arrived at Oshogbo at 5.20 pm. + went to the D.O.’s house where the Norcotts were expecting me to dinner. I spent the evening with them, + they very kindly came with me to the station + saw me off by the 10.50 pm. train to Lagos.


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Thursday, 11